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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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An Overview of Genome-wide Association Studies in Plants
Yuhui Zhao, Xiuxiu Li, Zhuo Chen, Hongwei Lu, Yucheng Liu, Zhifang Zhang, Chengzhi Liang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 715-732.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20091
Accepted: 26 August 2020

Abstract2907)   HTML159)    PDF (1798KB)(3043)       Save

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a general approach for unraveling genetic variations associated with complex traits in both animals and plants. The development of high-throughput genotyping has greatly boosted the development and application of GWAS. GWAS is not only used to identify genes/loci contributing to specific traits from diversenatural populations with high-resolution genome-wide markers, it also systematically reveals the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. During recent years, GWAS has successfully detected a large number of QTLs and candidate genes associated with various traits in plants including Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, soybean and maize. All these findings provided candidate genes controlling the traits and theoretical basis for breeding of high-yield and high-quality varieties. Here we review the methods, the factors affecting the power, and a data analysis pipeline of GWAS to provide reference for relevant research.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Achievements and Advances in the Plant Sciences Field in China in 2020
Hongya Gu, Jianru Zuo, Xiaoquan Qi, Shuhua Yang, Zhiduan Chen, Qian Qian, Rongcheng Lin, Lei Wang, Langtao Xiao, Xiaojing Wang, Fan Chen, Liwen Jiang, Yongfei Bai, Kang Chong, Tai Wang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 119-133.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21071
Accepted: 28 April 2021

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In 2020, the numbers of original research articles published by Chinese plant scientists in international multidisciplinary journals and mainstream plant science journals increased significantly compared with that in 2019, and important advances have been made in the fields of plant development, stress tolerance, crop biology, genomic phylogenetics and evolution. Among them, “Cloning, functional characterization and application in wheat breeding of the Fhb7 resistant gene to Fusarium head blight”, and “A new mechanism to improve the nitrogen-utilization efficiency in crops” were selected as two of the “Top Ten Advances in Life Sciences in China” in 2020. Here we summarize the achievements of plant science research in China in 2020, and briefly introduce 30 representative important research advances, so as to help readers understand the developmental trend of plant sciences in China, and conduct their future research to meet the national needs.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Methods for Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Blast and Sheath Blight Diseases
Min He, Junjie Yin, Zhiming Feng, Xiaobo Zhu, Jianhua Zhao, Shimin Zuo, Xuewei Chen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 577-587.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20100
Accepted: 21 July 2020

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Rice is the most important crop in the world. However, rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani are two of diseases, which threaten both yield and quality of rice most severely. To ensure food security, it is very important to identify disease-resistant rice germplasm, clone disease resistant genes, uncover the molecular basis and apply them in rice breeding program. Accurate evaluation of the disease resistance of rice is fundamental to both uncover disease resistance mechanism and improve resistance in rice breeding. Here, we describe the common methods for evaluating rice blast disease resistance by spraying inoculation of seedlings with M. oryzae, injection inoculation at rice tillering and booting stage, and punch inoculation of detached rice leaves. We also describe the methods for evaluating rice sheath blight disease resistance by field inoculation with R. solani at rice tillering stage, greenhouse inoculation at rice booting stage, and inoculation of rice detached-stems in growth chamber. We believe these methods could provide useful protocols for colleagues who aim to identify rice disease-resistant resources, dissect the underlying molecular mechanism and breed elite rice varieties with improved disease resistance.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Function and Transcriptional Regulation of Autophagy-related Genes in Plants
Xibao Li, Minyi Lai, Shan Liang, Xiaojing Wang, Caiji Gao, Chao Yang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 201-217.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20159
Accepted: 24 November 2020

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Macroautophagy (hereafter termed autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation and recyc- ling pathway in eukaryotes. In this pathway, cellular substances, such as dysfunctional proteins and damaged organelles, are sequestered by a double-membrane structure, autophagosome, and eventually delivered to the lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation and recycling. Autophagy plays essential roles in plant growth and development, as well as in response to environmental stresses. Up to now, more than 40 autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been identified in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. It is well established that a large number of ATG genes are up-regulated during specific developmental stages such as leaf senescence and seed maturation, as well as when plants encounter adverse environmental conditions, for example, nutrient starvation, drought or pathogens infection and so on. However, the transcriptional activation or repression mechanisms of ATG genes during these biological processes are largely unknown and need further study. In this review, we summarized the roles and the well-established transcriptional regulation network of ATG genes during plant growth, development and stress responses.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Biosynthesis and Function of Plant Pectin
Peipei Liu, Geng Zhang, Xiaojuan Li
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 191-200.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20179
Accepted: 22 January 2021

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As one of the plant cell wall polysaccharides, pectin has a very complex structure and function. Pectin is mainly composed by homogalacturonan (HG), rhamngalacturonan I (RGI), rhamngalacturonan II (RGII). Pectin plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of cell wall structure, intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. Therefore, studying the structure, distribution and roles of pectin components is of great significance for understanding the construction and function of cell wall. However, it is not clear how these three components of pectin cross-link to form high structure and perform biological function in the cell wall. This review will focus on the biosynthesis, functions of HG, RGI, RGII as well as the microscopic imaging techniques of pectin, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the study of the structure and function of plant pectin.

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Xyloglucan and the Advances in Its Roles in Plant Tolerance to Stresses
Yingyan Xiao, Weina Yuan, Jing Liu, Jian Meng, Qiming Sheng, Yehuan Tan, Chunxiang Xu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 777-787.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20020
Accepted: 12 May 2020

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Xyloglucan (XyG) is a matrix polysaccharide present in the cell wall of all land plants. It is the most abundant hemicellulose in the primary cell walls of dicots (20%-25%, w/w). As a very important plant cell wall component, XyG is not only involved in plant growth and development, but also plays important roles in responses of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The use of genes involved in XyG biosynthesis and degradation possibly improve the tolerance of plants to stresses through influencing the cell wall structure (remodelling) and compositions. In addition, XyG and XyG oligosaccharides likely act as signaling molecules or cooperate with other signaling molecules to induce plant resistance. Here, we review the structure and variety of XyG, the genes involved in XyG biosynthesis and degradation, and advances in potential roles of XyG and XyG-related genes in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Aromatic Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Animal Production
Yuanpeng Hao, Jingyi Li, Rui Yang, Hui Li, Hongtong Bai, Lei Shi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 644-657.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20029
Accepted: 21 July 2020

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Essential oils (EOs), volatile oily liquid extracted from aromatic plants, are vital secondary metabolites with the characteristic odor. The antimicrobial activities are determined by chemical compositions and concentrations of EOs. Of these, phenols, oxygenous terpenoids and terpenes possess significant antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial mechanisms of EOs mainly involve in the alteration of fatty acids outer membrane, damaging of cytoplasmic membrane, depletion of proton-motive force and leakage of metabolites and ions. In the production systems of animal husbandry, misuse of antibiotics leads to the generation of “super bacteria”, and antibiotic residues cause the problems of animal by-products unsafety and environmental pollution. Aromatic EOs serve as natural antimicrobial agents with advantages of low toxicity and no residues, thus EOs can be used as feed additives to replace the antibiotics for animal health. This review article describes the active compounds and antimicrobial mechanisms of aromatic EOs as well as their applications in animal production, and emphasizes the application of new technologies in the research of antimicrobial mechanisms. This article will provide the theoretical basis for the application of aromatic EOs in the animal production.

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Cited: CSCD(3)
The Legume SHR-SCR Module Predetermines Nodule Founder Cell Identity
Chengwu Liu, Zhong Zhao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 661-665.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20182
Accepted: 09 December 2020

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Symbiotic nitrogen fixation between legumes and rhizobia is the most important nitrogen source for sustainable agriculture. As the final accommodation for rhizobia, the specialized lateral organ, root nodule, that provides the essential microenvironments for rhizobia and its proper development, is vital for biological nitrogen fixation. Nodule de novo organogenesis mainly initiates from cortical cell division and it is generally accepted that cortical cells of legumes possess certain identity, which enables them to respond to and establish symbiosis with rhizobia, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recently a team led by Ertao Wang in Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Science showed that the SHORTROOT-SCARECROW (SHR-SCR) module predetermines this cortical cell identity in legumes. This study uncovers a novel molecular mechanism for nodule organogenesis, and provides important clues for an evolutionary understanding of root nodule symbiosis, which is both practically and theoretically valuable for improving nitrogen fixation efficiency in legumes and engineering nitrogen symbiosis in non-legumes.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Triploid in Poaceae: Formation, Detection, and Utilization
Xu Yan, Yanchun Zuo, Honglin Wang, Yang Li, Yingzheng Li, Jing Kou, Qilin Tang, Xiaokang Zhou, Zhouhe Du
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (3): 372-387.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20166
Accepted: 22 January 2021

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The formation pathway of triploid in Poaceae includes 2n gamete fusion, interploidy cross, polyspermy, and endosperm culture. The fusion of reduced male (n) and unreduced female gamete (2n) is the main method for forming natural triploids. Interploidy cross is the main method for synthesizing artificial triploids. The application of ploidy identification methods such as morphological observation, chromosome analysis, flow cytometry and molecular markers in gramineous triploids is introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of different methods are also discussed. At present, triploid has no direct application value in cereal crops, but it can be used as a genetic bridge to synthetize polyploid and aneuploid, as well as to transfer alien genes from wild species to cultivated species. Gramineous triploids (especially allotriploid) are widely cultivated for forage or biofuel production, suggesting that triploidy breeding may be directly performed in this type of grasses. We discuss the future prospect of research on gramineous triploid, e.g., polyploid- and apomixis-triploid breeding. Particularly, endosperm culture can synthesize triploids in one step, and polyspermy can achieve one-step fusion of three genetically different plant genomes, which should be paid attention to in the triploidy research. Due to rare occurrence of 2n gamete fusion and polyspermy, and frequent chromosomal variation in ploidy hybridization and endosperm culture, the development of high-throughput triploid identification technology will become the key for breakthrough in triploidy generation/breeding.

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WUSCHEL-mediated Innate Immunity in Plant Stem Cells Provides a Novel Antiviral Strategy
Fei Du, Yuling Jiao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 537-540.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20149
Accepted: 09 October 2020

Abstract1007)   HTML48)    PDF (763KB)(930)       Save

Stem cells in plant shoot apical meristem maintain a high level of pluripotency, providing the source of all above-ground tissues and organs. Since plants cannot move to escape from various stresses, protection of plant stem cells from viruses and other pathogens is essential for plant growth and development. Although it has long been known that compared with other parts of the plant, the shoot apex containing the stem cell niche is against virus invasion and accumulation, the related mechanism is still elusive. A recent study from the group of Zhong Zhao at University of Science and Technology of China uncovered the mechanism of how plant stem cells in Arabidopsis are immune to virus infection through WUS-mediated innate immunity. WUS responses to the infection of cucumber mosaic virus, and represses virus accumulation in the central zone and peripheral zone. WUS directly represses the transcription of several S-adenosyl- L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase genes, resulting in disturbed rRNA processing and ribosome stability which affecting viral protein synthesis. This study reveals a conserved and broad-spectrum strategy of antiviral immunity in plant stem cells, which provides high values in both theory and application.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Genome-wide Identification and Comparative Evolutionary Analysis of the R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper
Kaicheng Kang, Xiqiang Niu, Xianzhong Huang, Nengbing Hu, Yihu Sui, Kaijing Zhang, Hao Ai
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (3): 315-329.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20143
Accepted: 25 February 2021

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As one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants, MYB TFs are involved in various physiological and biochemical processes, such as plant growth, metabolism, and response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. R2R3-MYB is the main form of MYB TFs in higher plants. Pepper is a vegetable crop with important economic value, but the R2R3-MYB TF family has not been systematically studied in pepper. In this study, 94 CaMYB, 92 CbMYB, and 94 CcMYB TFs genes were identified with comparative genomic analysis in Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, and C. chinense, respectively. These genes were categorized into 28 subfamilies. Collinearity analysis indicated that there were 73 groups of orthologous R2R3-MYB genes among three pepper species. There were five, four, and two unique R2R3-MYB genes in C. annuum, C. baccatum, and C. chinense, respectively. In addition, we identified 12 pairs of duplicated genes, and eight of which are tandemly repeated genes, which already existed before the divergence of three pepper species. Comparative genomics analysis suggested that the homologous R2R3-MYB TFs underwent functionally divergence during the evolution of pepper. Analysis on the expression profile showed that R2R3-MYB genes were expressed in three major patterns: high expression in roots, leaves, stems, and flowers, such as CaMYB13/CbMYB12/- CcMYB13; high expression in flowers, such as CaMYB93/CbMYB86/CcMYB12; high expression in roots, such as CaMYB48/CbMYB47/CcMYB51. These results lay a foundation for further study on the biological functions of R2R3-MYB TFs in the growth and development of pepper.

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CRISPR-based DNA Fragment Deletion in Plants
Xianrong Xie, Dongchang Zeng, Jiantao Tan, Qinlong Zhu, Yaoguang Liu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 44-49.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20203
Accepted: 25 February 2021

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CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology has been an important tool to study the gene function and genomic modification. Directed by a guide RNA, Cas9 protein can cleavage the genomic DNA at the target site, and produce mutations, including deletion, insertion, substitution and fragment deletion, by DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism. In this protocol, we introduce the method to use CRISPR/Cas9 system to increase the efficiency of genomic DNA fragment deletion with microhomology-mediated end joining, especially the details in target design and detection of mutant plants.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Advances in the Main Ecological Functions of Root Exudates
Jiajia Li, Miaochun Fan, Zhouping Shangguan
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 788-796.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20036
Accepted: 14 October 2020

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Root exudates play an important role in root-soil-microorganism interactions and ecological feedback mechanisms. Root exudates are considered as the medium of “rhizosphere dialogue” in the process of complex plant rhizosphere network interaction, with great impact in regulating plant adaptation to microhabitats, thus alleviating rhizosphere nutrient competition and constructing rhizosphere microbial community structure. Here, we review the recent advances on the effects of root exudates on plant growth, soil microbial characteristics such as soil enzymes, microbial biomass, and microbial community, and soil nutrient circulation. We also propose the important directions and contents of future research on root exudates.

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Cited: CSCD(5)
Methods for TurboID-based Proximal Labeling in Plants
Jiayi Kuang, Hongqing Li, Wenjin Shen, Caiji Gao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (5): 584-593.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21104
Accepted: 11 August 2021

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Proximity labeling (PL), a recently developed technique to detect protein-protein interactions and subcellular structural proteomes in living cells, has been successfully applied in various animal and plant systems. Proximity labeling is conducted by fusing an engineered enzyme with catalytic activity to a protein of interest (bait protein). With the catalysis of the enzyme, small molecular substrates such as biotin are covalently linked to endogenous proximal proteins, which can be further enriched and analyzed to identify the interactome of the bait protein. TurboID, a biotin ligase produced by directed evolution, has the advantages of non-toxicity and high catalytic efficiency. Using TurboID-based proximity labeling to analyze proximal proteins of bait proteins, we can study transient or weak protein interactions, which helps to understand the complex biological processes occurring inside cells. Here, we describe methods and related tips for TurboID-based proximal labeling in Arabidopsis thaliana, and hope to provide a reference for studying plant protein-protein interactions.

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Advances in Auxin Efflux Carrier PIN Proteins
Yuqing Lin, Yanhua Qi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 151-165.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20198
Accepted: 19 January 2021

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Auxin polar transport regulates plant growth and development. The polar transport of auxin mainly depends on three transporters: AUX/LAX, PIN and ABCB protein families. The direction of auxin flow between cells is closely related to the polar localization of PIN proteins in cells. The PIN protein contains a central hydrophilic loop (HL) and two separated hydrophobic regions, and the multiple phosphorylation sites on HL are the targets of protein kinases. The PIN proteins are fine-tuned at multiple levels, including transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional modification, intracellular recycling and vacuolar trafficking for degradation, in response to endogenous and exogenous signals. Using genome-wide analysis, 12, 15 and 11 PIN like genes have been identified in rice, maize and sorghum, respectively, but the functions of only a few genes have been reported. Here we reviewed the research progress of PIN protein in Arabidopsis thalianaand cereal crops from the aspects of protein structure, activity regulation and functional verification to provide new ideas and clues for exploring the auxin polar transport mediated by PIN protein family.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Quantitative Definition and Classification of Leaves in Large- flowered Chinese Chrysanthemum Based on the Morphological Traits
Xuebin Song, Kang Gao, He Huang, Zhilan Liu, Silan Dai, Yu Ji
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 10-24.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20014
Accepted: 11 November 2020

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The leaf morphology of Chinese traditional chrysanthemum varieties is very variable, but it has not been scientifically defined and classified, so it is impossible to make effective use of these morphological traits for variety identification and genetic analysis. The definition and classification of plant morphology by quantitative analysis is the premise of genetic analysis of plant traits. In this study, 24 leaf traits of 436 chrysanthemum varieties were re-defined and measured. The correlation analysis identified 8 relatively independent traits, and principal component analysis further focused on 5 key traits, including the leaf blade length/leaf blade width, widest part length/leaf blade length, right lower leaf lobe length/leaf vein length of right lower lobe, right lower leaf lobe length/right lower leaf lobe width, leaf petiole length/leaf blade length. The leaf shapes were classified into 16 types by Q clustering analysis. This study established a quantitative definition and classification system for the leaves of Chinese traditional chrysanthemum varieties. It provided an effective leaf evaluation standard for the identification of chrysanthemum varieties, and a new method for the analysis of complex traits of ornamental plants.

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Genome-wide Identification and Analysis of CONSTANS-like Gene Family in Nicotiana tabacum
Yawen Zhang, Shan Liang, Guoyun Xu, Wuxia Guo, Shulin Deng
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 33-43.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20147
Accepted: 05 January 2021

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Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) is one of the model plants for molecular biology research as well as an important economic crop in the world. A suitable living environment is essential for the growth and reproduction of tobacco. CONSTANS-like (COL) family proteins are not only key regulators for flowering time, but also play important roles in stress response of plants. Our aim was to identify the COL family members, analyze their gene structure, evolutionary relationship, transcriptional regulatory elements and expression patterns, and explore their possible functions in response to cold stress in tobacco. We identified a total of 15 COL genes with similar physiochemical properties in tobacco. Evolutionary analysis divided all COL genes into three categories, and similar intron structure and motif distribution were observed among genes within each category. The promoter regions of tobacco COL genes contain a large number of cis-acting elements related to responses to light, low temperature, drought and phyto hormone. Gene expression analysis showed that low temperature significantly affected the expression of COL genes in tobacco, but the effects on different genes were different. Our study showed different parental (N. sylvestris (maternal) and N. tomentosiformis (paternal)) expression bias between different COL genes in tobacco, and most of the bias patterns were maintained from 6-7 leaf stage to budding stage.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress in Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination Regulated by Cytokinin
Songquan Song, Jun Liu, Hua Yang, Wenhu Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jiadong Gao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 218-231.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20141
Accepted: 22 January 2021

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Seed germination is an important stage in the establishment, growth and propagation of plants, and plays a critical role in the life cycle of seed plants. Seed dormancy is formed during development, and reaches its peak at physiological maturity. The phytohormone regulation of seed dormancy and germination may be a highly conserved mechanism in seed plants. Cytokinin (CK) is one of the most important signal molecules in plants, and regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. The bioactive CK levels are controlled by a balance among biosynthesis, activation, deactivation, re-activation and degradation, and seed development, dormancy and germination are regulated by bioactive CK levels and signaling pathways. Here, we mainly summarize the research progresses of CK biosynthesis and catabolism, signaling, and regulation on seed development, dormancy and germination. In addition, we also propose some scientific questions that need further addressed in this field to provide some information for understanding the molecular mechanism of seed development, dormancy and germination regulated by CK.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Graft Healing Process
Lulu Xie, Qingqing Cui, Chunjuan Dong, Qingmao Shang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 634-643.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20061
Accepted: 29 June 2020

Abstract881)   HTML31)    PDF (867KB)(809)       Save

Grafting can significantly improve target traits such as yield, quality, and resistance of vegetable varieties, and is widely applied in agricultural practice. Prompting graft healing between scion and stock at the graft interface is necessary to improve graft efficiency. Currently the improvement on the technology is hampered by our lack of understanding of regulatory mechanisms of graft healing. The graft healing process involves complicated and cross-linked physiological events, including wounding stress response, callus formation, cell communication between scion and stock, and the regeneration and reunion of scion and stock. Recent research has provided a good foundation for our understanding the molecular mechanisms of graft healing. In this review, we summarize the central roles of phytohormones in each of the physiological events, and the phytohormone-dependent and -independent gene regulatory networks in graft healing, to provide a reference for further studying graft healing-related molecular mechanisms.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Advances in Biological Functions of Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants
Yanyan Li, Yanhua Qi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2022, 57 (1): 30-41.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21168
Accepted: 28 December 2021

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Auxin is one of the most important plant hormones and plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development. In plants, early auxin responsive gene families, such as Aux/IAA (Auxin/Indole acetic acid repressors), GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) and SAUR (Small Auxin up RNA), are rapidly induced and up-regulated by auxin treatment. Aux/IAA gene family is generally composed of four conserved domains. Domain I inhibits the expression of downstream genes in the auxin signaling pathway, and domain II is mainly regulated by Transport Inhibitor Response 1 (TIR1) in auxin signal transduction, thus affecting the stability of Aux/IAA. Domain III/IV regulates auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factor (ARF). Aux/IAA gene family has been reported to play an important role in organ development, root formation, stem elongation and leaf expansion in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis thaliana while in monocotyledonous rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aux/IAA mainly affects root development and plant architecture. However, the functions of most Aux/IAA genes remain unclear and need to further study. In this article, we reviewed the structure and function of Aux/IAA protein, and the auxin signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis, cereal crops and other plants to provide clues for fully revealing the biofunction of the Aux/IAA gene family.

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Research Advances in Plant Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms in Response to Cadmium Stress
Tingting An, Di Huang, Hao Wang, Yi Zhang, Yinglong Chen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (3): 347-362.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20160
Accepted: 18 February 2021

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Cadmium (Cd) is one of the widely distributed and polluted heavy metals. With serious toxicity, Cd not only affects the growth and development of plants, but also endangers human health. This review summarizes recent research advances and underlying mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to Cd stress in plants. We also review and discuss plant responses in photosynthetic systems, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant defense systems, hormones, calcium signals, and their underpinning proteomics and genomics mechanisms. We aim to form a theoretical basis for future research on understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant responses to Cd stress.

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Cited: CSCD(4)
The Gold Will Glitter Wherever it is: Convergent Selection in Maize and Rice
Hong Yu, Jiayang Li
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2022, 57 (2): 153-156.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB22054
Accepted: 24 March 2022

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Domestication of wild plants was crucial for human settlement and the development of civilization, which arose independently in many different geographic areas on different wild species. However, these crops underwent variant domestication process displaying the ‘domestication syndrome’ with a common suite of traits. The systematical analysis of convergent selection at genome level may provide important information and genetic resources for crop breeding. Recently, a team led by Xiaohong Yang and Jiansheng Li from Chinese Agricultural University and Jianbing Yan from Huazhong Agricultural University reported the genetic basis of convergent selection between maize and rice at both single gene and whole genome levels. Particularly, they found the maize KRN2 and rice OsKRN2 genes experienced convergent selection and regulated grain number and yield in a similar pathway. Moreover, they identified a large number of orthologous gene pairs that underwent convergent selection during maize and rice evolution, which were enriched in certain pathways including starch metabolism, sugar and coenzyme synthesis. This significant work not only cloned KRN2/OsKRN2 orthologous gene pairs with great value in maize and rice breeding, but also revealed the convergent selection between maize and rice at the genome level, providing critical foundations for studying the molecular basis of domestication syndrome and their applications in breeding practices.

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Research Progress on Sex Determination Genes of Woody Plants
Jing Lu, Yingnan Chen, Tongming Yin
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 90-103.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20123
Accepted: 11 November 2020

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Dioecious plants provide ideal materials for studying the sex determination mechanisms and the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes. Cloning of sex determination genes is crucial for revealing the sex-determination mechanism. There are many woody dioecious plant species, which contain two opposite sex determination systems: XY (females are homogametic XX and males are heterogametic XY) and ZW (females are heterogametic ZW and males are homogametic ZZ). Besides, trees of different sexes may have different economic values. Studies on the sex determination of woody plants not only have theoretical significances, but also have potential practical applications. With the development of large-scale sequencing technology, more and more sex determination genes of woody plants have been identified and cloned, which provides strong experimental evidence for the evolutionary history of dioecious plants and sex chromosomes. In this review, we summarized the important research progress on sex determination genes of woody plants, and discussed some future perspectives in this area.

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Antifungal Compounds Come in Handy
Jian-Min Zhou, Lidong Cao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 533-536.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20158
Accepted: 21 September 2020

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Pathogenic microbes employ specialized mechanisms to breach defense of host plants, causing diseases on plants and losses in agricultural production. Understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis offers new avenues for disease control. A team from Sichuan Agriculture University led by Xuewei Chen investigated mechanisms underlying the genera- tion of an infection structure called penetration peg, which is employed by many fungal pathogens such as the one causing blast disease on rice. They discovered that very-long-chain fatty acids are required for this process. They further demonstrated that a group of commercialized herbicides capable of inhibiting very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in fungi can effectively inhibit pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of fungi, which brings new technology to control diseases and provides new ideas for new pesticides discovery.

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An Improved Protocol for Whole Mount Clearing of Plant Root Tip
Long Ma, Guilin Li, Shipeng Li, Su Jiang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 596-604.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20016
Accepted: 05 June 2020

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Whole mount clearing is a routine method in morphological study, which allows observation of plant internal structure without section. Using high refractive index materials as medium, clearing techniques reduce light scattering, acquire enhancive light quantity and increase depth of field and vertical planes in a particular focal plane, to facilitate the samples transparency for observation. Nevertheless, clearing materials may disturb the osmosis and pH of sample medium, which is adverse to cells morphology. So far, the effective clearing techniques have been widely used in several studies with ovule and leaf. However, the current protocol is not reliable enough for root tip clearing, because the thin cell wall is vulnerable under the treatment of clearing solutions, resulting in abnormal root tips and cells plasmolysis. To achieve a stable and optimized clearing method for root tip, we established a standard protocol via evaluation of root tip morphology, plasmolysis and cells clarity in Arabidopsis thaliana. With these improved clearing methods, we developed an optimized clearing observation system (including clearing time, pH and composition) for root tip, which could provide a reliable technique for vulnerable tissues clearing.

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Advances in the Molecular Mechanism and Genetic Regulation of Grain-filling Rate in Rice
Sunlu Chen, Chengfang Zhan, Hong Jiang, Linhan Li, Hongsheng Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 80-89.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20157
Accepted: 11 November 2020

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High yield and good quality of rice are important guarantees for food security in China, as well as the objective which breeders are pursuing. Grain-filling rate (GFR) is an important and complex agronomic trait in rice, directly affecting grain plumpness, weight, and quality. To date, elite rice germplasm with rapid GFR is rare, and valuable gene resources for breeding remain limited, which has become a bottleneck for further improvement of yield and quality in rice breeding. Comparing with other rice agronomic traits, GFR is highly complex for its spatio-temporal dynamics and environment- dependent variability, the research of which has long been concentrated on the physiological and biochemical characteristics and cultivation measure control of grain-filling period. The study on the molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of GFR has arisen relatively recently. Here, focusing on the GFR-related genes in rice identified recently, we reviewed the preliminarily known molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of GFR, including the influence of sugar metabolism and transport-related genes on GFR, the transcriptional and translational regulatory genes in GFR, the function of grain size and weight-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of GFR, and the analysis of GFR-related QTLs; we also discussed the future perspective of the research strategies for GFR, especially the application potential of phenomics-related technologies for GFR research, in order to promote the foundational research and application in rice breeding.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Genomic Basis of Rice Adaptation to Soil Nitrogen Status
Wei Xuan, Guohua Xu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 1-5.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20208
Accepted: 06 January 2021

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Crop productivity relies heavily on inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilization, while excess application of N fertilizers results in detrimental effects on ecosystem and plant developmental process. Thus, the improvement of crop N use efficiency (NUE) is critical for the development of sustainable agriculture. Thus far, significant advances in understanding the regulation of NUE have been achieved in rice (Oryza sativa), one of the most important food crops. Several key transporter and regulatory genes involved in N uptake, translocation, and metabolism have been cloned and characterized in rice. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the geographic adaptation of rice to the change of local soil N status remain elusive. Recently, a team led by Prof. Chengcai Chu, in Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, evaluated the responses to N supplies of rice germplasm resources collected from different eco-geographical regions worldwide. By performing genome-wide association study on rice tillering response to N (TRN), OsTCP19 is identified as a repressor of TRN, and a 29 bp InDel polymorphism in its promoter determines TRN variations among the rice varieties. OsTCP19 regulates TRN by inhibiting the transcription of DLT, a tiller-promoting gene, whilst the transcription of OsTCP19 itself is controlled by a N responsive suppressor LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) protein. Notably, OsTCP19 haplotypes were selected among rice germplasms and correlated with local soil N content. This study not only reveals the genetic basis of geographic adaptation of cultivated rice to the changes of soil N environment, but also provides novel genetic candidates for effective breeding of higher NUE rice cultivars.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Establishment and Optimization of a Shoot Tip-based Genetic Transformation System for Foxtail Millet
Lan Yang, Ya Liu, Yang Xiang, Xiujuan Sun, Jingwei Yan, Aying Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 71-79.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20119
Accepted: 14 October 2020

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In this study, a simple and stable genetic transformation system of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) was established and optimized, in which shoot tips were used as the explant. We transformed Yugu 1, an elite millet cultivar, by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and tested different treatments to boost transformation efficiency. We used a PCR-based assay to screen transformants in third-leaf stage seedlings. We determined an optimal lethal concentration of glufosinate (Basta) when sprayed to millet seedlings, and tested the different PCR-based genotyping methods with or without Basta spary. Using the newly established pipeline, we further optimized various crucial factors that affect genetic transformation efficiency. We found that an optimal concentration of bacterial culture was OD600=1.4, an optimal concentration of acetolsyringone was 800 μmol∙L -1. We also obtained high transformation efficiency with an infecting pressure at 0.05 MPa, and an infecting time of 40 min. We used the above-mentioned transformation method to transform a Seteria italica calcineurin B-like protein 4 (SiCBL4) overexpression construct. Genetic stability analysis on T2 generation transformed plants was performed by the combination assay of Basta resistance and real-time quantitative fluorescence RT-PCR, which can save the time of genotyping. Altogether, this study establishes a shoot tip-based stable genetic transformation system for foxtail millets, and also develops a robust pipeline to detect transgenic offsprings.

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Establishment of a Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation System of Dryopteris fragrans
Dongrui Zhang, Zhigang Bu, Lingling Chen, Ying Chang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 760-767.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20079
Accepted: 26 August 2020

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Dryopteris fragrans is a perennial herb fern with medical and economical values, such as anti-oxidation, bacteriostasis, anti-psoriasis, and anti-tumor. The wild resources of D. fragrans are scarce. Establishing a regeneration system for D. fragrans through tissue culture is needed to enable a sustainable use of this valuable resource. In this experiment, through sterile culture of spores of D. fragrans, the effects of different factors on prothallium proliferation, sporophyte induction, callus induction and proliferation, cluster bud differentiation, and rooting were compared and analyzed to establish a rapid propagation system, which laid the foundation for large-scale production of D. fragrans. The results showed that 1/2MS medium provided optimal growth with green color and a multiplication factor up to 5.67±0.59. The obtained plants have numerous young spores, and the spore induction rate was (37.50±2.04)%. The most efficient callus induction medium contains 1/2MS media supplied with 2.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, and 1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D, which reached an induction rate up to (96.67±5.77)%. The optimal callus proliferation medium we obtained was 1/2MS media supplied with 1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, and 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D, which reached a proliferation factor of 13.30. The obtained granular callus produced a large number of cluster buds (53.33±3.33)% in 1/2MS medium, and 1/2MS media supplied with 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA medium promoted rooting, resulting in a transplanting survival rate of ~60%.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Saturation Mutagenesis Using Dual Cytosine and Adenine Base Editors
Rui Zhang, Caixia Gao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 50-55.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21009
Accepted: 25 February 2021

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Because the genome of an organism determines its primary phenotype, evolutionary principles suggest that genetic variations enhance phenotypic diversity towards increased fitness. Targeted saturation mutagenesis of crop genes could be used to screen for genetic variants with improved agronomic traits. Compared to traditional mutational breeding or directed evolution in heterologous organisms, targeted mutagenesis via dual cytosine and adenine base editors effectively generates endogenous mutagenesis and facilitates in vivo directed evolution of plant genes. In this protocol, we detail the process towards using saturated targeted endogenous mutagenesis editors (STEMEs) to generate targeted, random mutagenesis of plant genes. In particular, we focus on the process of designing targets, screening and genotyping the resulting evolved variants.

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Advances in Genetic Studies of the Awn in Cereal Crops
Fei Qi, Piyi Xing, Yinguang Bao, Honggang Wang, Xingfeng Li
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (5): 613-622.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB19236
Accepted: 23 March 2020

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The awn is an important structure on the panicles of many cereal crops, which can not only be used as an important morphological character to distinguish different varieties and as a morphological marker for genetic mapping, but also play an important role in seed transmission, grain filling, transpiration and yield. Here we summarize the recent advancement of studies on the structure, function and genetic mechanism of the awn in wheat, barley and rice, which may provide a reference for the further studies on the genetic mechanism of the awn development, and for the application in breeding.

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Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of Cerasus serrulata var. lannesiana cv. ‘Grandiflora’
Qian Luo, Yansha Zhang, Jing Ou
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (4): 451-461.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20205
Accepted: 07 May 2021

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In order to establish the regeneration system of Cerasus serrulata var. lannesiana cv. ‘Grandiflora’, the effects of different explants and plant hormone combinations on callus induction, adventitious bud differentiation, proliferation and rooting were studied using perennial mother plant leaflets, annual grafted seedling leaflets, axillary bud induction leaflets and proliferative first-generation leaflets as explants. The results showed that callus could be induced from all four explants, and adventitious buds could be derived from all explants except the leaflets of perennial mother plants. The higher the degree of explants’ juvenility, the greater the success of subsequent culture, with the best explants were the proliferative first generation leaflets. The best medium for callus induction was MS+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D, and the induction rate was 96.22%. The optimal medium for differentiation was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 2,4-D+0.1 mg·L-1 TDZ, and the differentiation rate was 78.14%. The optimal medium for proliferation was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, and the proliferation coefficient reached 7.85. The optimal medium for rooting was 1/2MS without any hormone, and the regenerated plants with 100% rooting rate were obtained. The regenerated plants from different explants grew very differently, and those induced from first generation of proliferative leaflets had the best growth.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Protocols for Small RNA FISH in Plants
Binbin Hu, Zhihui Xue, Cui Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (3): 330-338.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21057
Accepted: 07 May 2021

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Small RNAs are a type of small nucleotide molecules that are essential for plant growth and development, playing a key role in variety of life processes and in response to stresses. Research on the location of small RNAs could discover their functions in plants. Small RNA FISH is a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of small RNA in organisms by fluorescence detection technology. At present, this technology has been widely used in animals, but it is still less applied in plants. This article introduces the specific operation procedures and attentions based on ultra-high resolution microscopy that combines locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe in situ hybridization with immunofluorescence. This protocol can be used to detect the expression and localization of small RNA in plant tissues.

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Auxin Regulates the Lateral Root Development Through MAPK-mediated VLCFAs Biosynthesis
Rongfeng Huang, Tongda Xu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 6-9.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20190
Accepted: 05 January 2021

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important and highly conserved cellular signal transduction pathway by delivery and amplification of upstream signals through protein kinase cascade phosphorylation in eukaryotes. In plants, MAPK signaling pathways not only mediate plant responses to environment, but also play crucial roles in regulating plant growth and development. A recent study from the Zhaojun Ding’s group of Shandong University uncovered a novel molecular mechanism of MPK14-mediated auxin signaling in lateral root development via ERF13- regulated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) biosynthesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanism of the lateral root development from a new perspective, and further confirms the coupling between the vital phytohormone auxin and the ancient MAPKs module. Since lateral roots act as essential organs for plants in response to environment, deciphering the MAPK signaling pathway in regulation of lateral root development will provide a new strategy for how plants integrate development signals and environmental cues.

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Progress in Flowering Regulation Mechanisms of FLC
Changsheng Zhang, Tao Wei, Yuping Zhou, Tian Fan, Tianxiao Lü, Chang'en Tian
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (6): 651-663.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB21103
Accepted: 10 September 2021

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FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is an important repressor of plant flowering. It mainly represses flowering by binding to the promoters of two downstream key floral promoting genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1). It also regulates flowering time by binding to other regulatory genes. While the detailed molecular mechanisms of FLC in the regulation of flowering still need to be deeply investigated. This review summarizes the new research progresses of FLC in recent years in the 8 genetic pathways of flowering regulation, and give an outlook for the future study in this field.

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The Role of Trans-2-hexenal in Plant Defense Responses
Shuyao Wang, Xin Hao, Yue Qu, Yingying Chen, Yingbai Shen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 232-240.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20131
Accepted: 22 January 2021

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As a small molecule volatile compound released by green plants, trans-2-hexenal plays a vital role in regulating plant growth and resistance to various environmental stresses. Studies have shown that trans-2-hexenal exhibits obvious inhibition on growth of plant root, and defense against bacterial infection and herbivorous feeding. Furthermore, it also displays a ‘messenger’ role in transmitting defense signals among plants. This paper reviewed trans-2-hexenal biosynthesis, metabolism pathway and its important role in defense response to biotic stress, also discussed the current problems in this research field and suggestions for future research, which would be helpful to illustrate defense or growth mechanism in plant response to trans-2-hexenal.

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QTL Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Cd Accumulation in Rice Grain
Chenyang Pan, Hanfei Ye, Weiyong Zhou, Sheng Wang, Mengjia Li, Mei Lu, Sanfeng Li, Xudong Zhu, Yuexing Wang, Yuchun Rao, Gaoxing Dai
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (1): 25-32.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20148
Accepted: 11 November 2020

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Rice is one of the world’s most important crops, but cadmium (Cd) pollution and Cd accumulation in rice fields pose a serious threat to its yield and quality as well as to human health. How to reduce Cd accumulation in rice has become a major concern. In this study, a japonica rice variety Nekken2 was used as the maternal parent, and an indica rice variety HZ was used as the paternal parent. After F1 generation was obtained by cross-breeding, successive selfings were performed for 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population as the QTL mapping populations. We measured the Cd content in rice grains of each line at the maturity stage. Meanwhile, QTL mapping was performed using genetic map. As a result, a total of 7 QTLs were detected, which were located on chromosome 2, 3, 9, and 12 of rice, with the highest LOD score of 4.97. The qRT-PCR analysis on the candidate genes involved in metal ion stress resistance in these QTL regions showed that the expression level of LOC_Os02g50240, LOC_Os02g52780, LOC_Os09g31200, LOC_Os09g35030 and LOC_Os09g37949 was significantly different from the parents. Combined with the data of concentration of different metal ions in the parents, we speculated that the high expression of LOC_Os02g50240, LOC_Os09g31200 and LOC_Os09g35030 might greatly improve the absorption and tolerance of rice to Cd ion stress. And these genes may be related to the accumulation of Cd in rice grains, and may affect the ability of rice to tolerate Cd stress, which could help for further breeding and screening for rice varieties to tolerate Cd stress, and exploring the molecular regulation mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Callus Induction and Somatic Embryogenesis in Anther Culture of Paeonia lactiflora
Yanmin Li, Hui Jiang, Zhenzhu Fu, Jing Zhang, Xin Yuan, Huijuan Wang, Jie Gao, Xiaoyu Dong, Limin Wang, Hechen Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (4): 443-450.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20195
Accepted: 27 May 2021

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The anthers of Paeonia lactiflora cv. ‘Fenyunu’ were used as explants to study the effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D on callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration. The cell composition of callus and the development process of somatic embryos were observed with cytohistological method, and the ploidy of regenerated plants was identified using root tip squash method. The results showed that the suitable medium for callus induction of P. lactiflora anther was MS+1 mg·L-12,4-D+1 mg·L-1NAA+0.1 mg·L-1KT+30 g·L-1sucrose+6.5 g·L-1agar, and the callus induction rate was 14.7%. The callus was transferred to somatic embryo induction medium and underwent stages of spherical embryo, heart-shaped embryo, torpedo embryo and cotyledon embryo, and the somatic embryo induction rate was 52.1%. Genuine leaves germinated in seedling medium and complete plants were obtained, and the seedling rate was 47.1%. Haploid and diploid plants were identified using root tip squash method. The study preliminarily established a culture system to implement plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis, which also provided reference protocol for anther culture of other varieties of Paeonia. Regenerated plants are important materials for genetic research and haploid breeding of P. lactiflora.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Regulation of Rice Growth by Root-secreted Phytohormones
Qilu Yu, Jiangzhe Zhao, Xiaoxian Zhu, Kewei Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2021, 56 (2): 175-182.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20133
Accepted: 29 December 2020

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The phytohormones are important small molecules synthesized in plants, and their contents change as the external and internal conditions vary. Small volume of growth media used in the hydroculture will restrict the growth of plants, which is generally thought to be caused by the shortage of nutrients. In this study, we found that rice seedlings grew faster in the large volume of water culture system than that in the small volume of water culture system. We measured the contents of different plant hormones in culture medium and rice seedlings using liquid chromatography-mass spectrum (LC-MS). It was found that there were more stress-response related phytohormones such as ABA, SA and JA-Ile accumulated in the plants growing in the small volume water system than that in the large volume water system, and finally resulted in a low growth rate and a biomass decline. Therefore, we speculate that plants can sense the water resource through actively sensing the concentration of root-secreted phytohormones, and adjust growth and development to better adapt to the environment. The study will help to understand the physiological functions of root-secreted phytohormones and optimize the hydroculture conditions in the area of plant factory.

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The Measurement Methods and Principles of P700 Redox Kinetics
Chunyan Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2020, 55 (6): 740-748.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB20064
Accepted: 26 August 2020

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P700 redox technique is referred to examine plant photosystem I (PSI) function quickly and non-intrusively, and widely used in the field of photosynthesis research. In this paper, we summarize the main measurement methods of the P700 redox kinetics systematically, expound its principles, and discuss the limitations. The aim is to provide a technical support for in-depth study of photosynthesis mechanisms.

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