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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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Current Issue
Editor-in-Chief:Kang Zhong
ISSN 1674-3466 CN 11-5705/Q
Post Code:2-967
Volume 55 Issue 6
01 November 2020
  
The Legume SHR-SCR Module Predetermines Nodule Founder Cell Identity
Chengwu Liu, Zhong Zhao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  661-665.  doi:10.11983/CBB20182
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Symbiotic nitrogen fixation between legumes and rhizobia is the most important nitrogen source for sustainable agriculture. As the final accommodation for rhizobia, the specialized lateral organ, root nodule, that provides the essential microenvironments for rhizobia and its proper development, is vital for biological nitrogen fixation. Nodule de novo organogenesis mainly initiates from cortical cell division and it is generally accepted that cortical cells of legumes possess certain identity, which enables them to respond to and establish symbiosis with rhizobia, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recently a team led by Ertao Wang in Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Science showed that the SHORTROOT-SCARECROW (SHR-SCR) module predetermines this cortical cell identity in legumes. This study uncovers a novel molecular mechanism for nodule organogenesis, and provides important clues for an evolutionary understanding of root nodule symbiosis, which is both practically and theoretically valuable for improving nitrogen fixation efficiency in legumes and engineering nitrogen symbiosis in non-legumes.

Spectral Characteristics of Phragmites australis and Its Response to Riverine Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents in River Reaches Restored by Reclaimed Water
Rui Zhao, Hongmei Bu, Xianfang Song, Rongjin Gao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  666-676.  doi:10.11983/CBB20085
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Reclaimed water is an important water source replenishing rivers and lakes for urban landscape. Higher contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in reclaimed water will cause eutrophication, disrupting the balance of hydro-ecology. Hyperspectral technology was applied to analyze the spectral characteristics of the emergent plant Phragmites australis, and the spectral characteristics response of P. australis leaf to nitrogen and phosphorus contents were explored in the Chaobai River restored by reclaimed water. Results showed that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were 1.85-18.16 mg·L -1, 0.01-0.36 mg·L-1, 0.60-47.45 μg·L -1, and 4.24-11.4 mg·L-1, respectively. Although the river water eutrophication was serious, it was still in an oxygen-rich environment. The results showed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of TN, TP, and Chl a among sampling sites (P<0.05) in multiple analysis of variance. With the increasing of riverine TN concentrations, the reflectance of leaf spectrum in the visible band lowered and the position of red edge also moved towards higher wavelength (i.e., redshift). The riverine TN and TP contents had significant correlations with the absorbance value log(1/R) in the visible band in correlation analysis, and the correlation coefficients between TN and log(1/R) were higher than that of TP. The difference of TN concentrations could be inferred by the spectrum of P. australis leaf to a certain extent, while the effect of TP on spectral characteristics was weaker than TN. TN was selected to establish fitting models with different spectral indices. Based on the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), the modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) and the derivative chlorophyll index (DCI), the exponential equations explained 62.4%-70.9% of TN (P<0.05), which could be useful for quantitatively monitoring of nitrogen contents in reclaimed water. This research proved practicability of plant spectrum technology in water eutrophication monitoring, providing a scientific basis for ensuring water quality safety and ecological security in rivers and lakes restored by reclaimed water.

Effects of Epigenetic Mechanisms on C4 Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa) Seed Germination Under Drought Stress
Ningxi Song, Yingfeng Xie, Xia Li
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  677-692.  doi:10.11983/CBB20048
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In order to reveal the effect of epigenetic mechanism under drought stress toward seed germination of transgenic rice within high maize C4-type PEPC gene expressing, C4-PEPC transgenic rice (PC) and wild type rice Kitaake (WT) were used in this study. By introducing DNA methylation inhibitor (5-azacytidine, 5azaC) and alternative splicing inhibitors (macrolides pladienolide B, PB), the drought simulation treatments with 10% (m/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG6000) alone or combining with the inhibitors were used for seed germination experiments. Seed vigor, soluble sugar and soluble protein content, α-amylase activity and the expression levels of related genes, PEPC-related genes, sugar signal-related genes, and some splicing factor genes during germination were measured. In the results, when treated with 0.25 µmol·L-1, PB had showed a significant inhibitory effect on the seed germination of the two tested rice lines under drought conditions. The content of total soluble sugar, sucrose, glucose, fructose and soluble protein during seed germination after PB addition was reduced to a certain extent under drought conditions. PB treatment also inhibited the gene expression of sucrose nonfermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase SnRKs family and the splicing factor arginine/serine-rich proteins (SR proteins), and the activity of α-amylase as well, but the inhibitory effect on PC is less than those on WT. 5 µmol·L -1 5azaC treatment had an opposite effect with alternative splicing inhibitors. The combination treatment with 5azaC and PEG6000 partially alleviated the inhibitory effect of drought stress on rice seed germination, and the germination rate of the tested materials increased. It can be seen that the mechanism of DNA methylation and alternative splicing are involved in drought tolerance at the bud stage of rice lines, with a larger effect on PC.

Morphology and Genetic Diversity of Phragmites australis in Beijing
Xi Zhang, Tianhang Qiu, Anan Wang, Huajian Zhou, Min Yuan, Li Li, Sulan Bai, Suxia Cui
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  693-704.  doi:10.11983/CBB20006
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To understand the distribution and diversity of Phragmites australis in Beijing, we carried out field investigation to Beijing’s major rivers, wetlands and reservoirs, which reveals that the total area of reed populations has reached more than 600 hm 2 in Beijing. The ploidy level is dominated by octaploid, followed by tetraploid. In larger wetlands, the single community of octoploid occupies a dominant position; while in shallow urban rivers, the mixed populations with different morphological, ploidy and genetic diversity are common. There is no significant correlation between the plant traits and ploidy level variation. Six different reed clones were found in Xiaoqing River, all belonging to P haplotypes. The haploid genome size of all clones ranged from (0.499±0.019) pg, with a coefficient of variation of 3.8%. These results show that there is no correlation between phenotype and haplotype. In addition, a reed variant with versicolor leaf characteristics was discovered and named as Phragmites australis var. australis f. Goldstripe. The morphology and genetic diversity of Phragmites in Beijing provide valuable resources for future study of the relationship between reed genotypes and environmental adaptability.

Effects of Deficit Irrigation on the Photosynthetic and Physiological Characteristics of Leaves and Yield of Isatis tinctoria
Zeyi Wang, Hengjia Zhang, Yucai Wang, Xietian Chen, Yuchun Ba
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  705-714.  doi:10.11983/CBB20056
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Taking the Isatis tinctoria as research crop, the field water control experiment was carried out in an arid oasis of the middle of the Hexi Corridor in 2018, and deficit levels included slight, moderate, severe water deficit (WD) and suitable irrigation, the influences of WD on physiological parameters, irrigation volume, yield and quality of Isatis tinctoria were studied with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, which would provide the theoretical basis for the establishment of irrigation management strategy of I. tinctoria in Hexi area. The results showed that WD treatment during the vegetative and fleshy root growth stages reduced the leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs), and with the higher degree of WD, the greater the decrease. Slight WD treatment had no significant effects on leaf photosynthetic capacity, and yield as compared with control, but the rest of treatment led to varying degrees of decrease in leaf photosynthetic capacity and yield. Fitting the relationship between the irrigation amount and the yield showed a quadratic parabola, which demonstrated that the yield did not enhance along with the increase of the irrigation amount. In conclusion, under-mulched drip irrigation WD reduces photosynthetic capacity of I. tinctoria leaves, while slight WD irrigation applied during the vegetative growth period saves irrigation water and improves yield and irrigation water use efficiency.

An Overview of Genome-wide Association Studies in Plants
Yuhui Zhao, Xiuxiu Li, Zhuo Chen, Hongwei Lu, Yucheng Liu, Zhifang Zhang, Chengzhi Liang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  715-732.  doi:10.11983/CBB20091
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Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a general approach for unraveling genetic variations associated with complex traits in both animals and plants. The development of high-throughput genotyping has greatly boosted the development and application of GWAS. GWAS is not only used to identify genes/loci contributing to specific traits from diversenatural populations with high-resolution genome-wide markers, it also systematically reveals the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. During recent years, GWAS has successfully detected a large number of QTLs and candidate genes associated with various traits in plants including Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, soybean and maize. All these findings provided candidate genes controlling the traits and theoretical basis for breeding of high-yield and high-quality varieties. Here we review the methods, the factors affecting the power, and a data analysis pipeline of GWAS to provide reference for relevant research.

Analysis of In Situ Distribution of Inorganic Elements in Plants by Micro-XRF
Fanyu Lin, Xijie Yin, Yuna Liang, Jiechao Huang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  733-739.  doi:10.11983/CBB20051
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The distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in plants play an important guiding role in the physiological, studies, which can reveal the distribution of nutrients, metabolic process, toxicity tolerance and other aspects in plants. Micro-XRF technology has many advantages to study inorganic elements, such as in situ, non-destructive, large area sample continuous mapping analysis, and simple pretreatment process. This study aims to explore the instrument parameters, pre-processing methods and data post-processing methods of micro-XRF in the distribution of inorganic elements of different plant organ samples. According to the difference of water content of different organs, we carried out different pretreatment schemes to obtain reliable experimental results. The influence of different point dwell time, chamber vacuum and other experimental conditions were compared. A variety of processing methods, such as image overlay, semi-quantitative analysis of concentration ratio of different elements, were carried out. The results show that micro-XRF technique has certain advantages in the determination of the distribution of inorganic elements in plant samples.

The Measurement Methods and Principles of P700 Redox Kinetics
Chunyan Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  740-748.  doi:10.11983/CBB20064
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P700 redox technique is referred to examine plant photosystem I (PSI) function quickly and non-intrusively, and widely used in the field of photosynthesis research. In this paper, we summarize the main measurement methods of the P700 redox kinetics systematically, expound its principles, and discuss the limitations. The aim is to provide a technical support for in-depth study of photosynthesis mechanisms.

The Establishment and Optimization of a Regeneration System for Marigold (Tagetes erecta)
Yaqin Wang, Ludan Wei, Wenjing Wang, Baojun Liu, Chunling Zhang, Junwei Zhang, Yanhong He
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  749-759.  doi:10.11983/CBB20062
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In this study, marigold (Tagetes erecta) leaves of 40 different genotypes were used as explants to induce adventitious buds formation to select the best regenerating genotype. In addition, main factors impacting the selected genotype’s regeneration and vitrification were analyzed, including hormone combinations, the way of explant incision, curing agent and sucrose, etc. Finally, different types of elongation medium were explored. The best regenerated genotype was marigold Milestone·Yellow. The best regeneration medium was MS media supplied with 0.2 mg·L‒1 TDZ, 0.5 mg·L‒1 IBA, 8 g·L‒1 agar, and 40 g·L‒1 sucrose, in which the regeneration rate was 70% and the vitrification rate was reduced to 16%. Whole leaflet was the most suitable explant among different leaflet segments; the best performing elongation medium was MS media supplied with 8 g·L‒1 agar and 30 g·L‒1 sucrose, and the elongation rate was 91.3%. This study establishes an efficient and stable regeneration system of marigold, and solved the serious vitrification problem commonly found during regeneration. It laid a foundation for marigold genetic improvement and gene function research.

Establishment of a Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation System of Dryopteris fragrans
Dongrui Zhang, Zhigang Bu, Lingling Chen, Ying Chang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  760-767.  doi:10.11983/CBB20079
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Dryopteris fragrans is a perennial herb fern with medical and economical values, such as anti-oxidation, bacteriostasis, anti-psoriasis, and anti-tumor. The wild resources of D. fragrans are scarce. Establishing a regeneration system for D. fragrans through tissue culture is needed to enable a sustainable use of this valuable resource. In this experiment, through sterile culture of spores of D. fragrans, the effects of different factors on prothallium proliferation, sporophyte induction, callus induction and proliferation, cluster bud differentiation, and rooting were compared and analyzed to establish a rapid propagation system, which laid the foundation for large-scale production of D. fragrans. The results showed that 1/2MS medium provided optimal growth with green color and a multiplication factor up to 5.67±0.59. The obtained plants have numerous young spores, and the spore induction rate was (37.50±2.04)%. The most efficient callus induction medium contains 1/2MS media supplied with 2.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, and 1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D, which reached an induction rate up to (96.67±5.77)%. The optimal callus proliferation medium we obtained was 1/2MS media supplied with 1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, and 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D, which reached a proliferation factor of 13.30. The obtained granular callus produced a large number of cluster buds (53.33±3.33)% in 1/2MS medium, and 1/2MS media supplied with 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA medium promoted rooting, resulting in a transplanting survival rate of ~60%.

Transposon-derived Long Noncoding RNA in Plants
Yijun Wang, Yali Wang, Yudong Chen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  768-776.  doi:10.11983/CBB20098
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Transposable element (TE), core component of the genome, influences genome structure and stability. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) modulates diverse biological events at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. TE and lncRNA are major driving forces of evolution. Emerging evidence has revealed the wide distribution of lncRNA that harbors TE. In this review, we first briefly introduce the methodologies of identification and functional analysis of plant lncRNA. We focus on the distribution and function of transposable element-derived lncRNA (TE-lncRNA). Finally, we discuss the regulatory mechanism, epigenetic modification, and breeding potential of TE-lncRNA in plants.

Xyloglucan and the Advances in Its Roles in Plant Tolerance to Stresses
Yingyan Xiao, Weina Yuan, Jing Liu, Jian Meng, Qiming Sheng, Yehuan Tan, Chunxiang Xu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  777-787.  doi:10.11983/CBB20020
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Xyloglucan (XyG) is a matrix polysaccharide present in the cell wall of all land plants. It is the most abundant hemicellulose in the primary cell walls of dicots (20%-25%, w/w). As a very important plant cell wall component, XyG is not only involved in plant growth and development, but also plays important roles in responses of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The use of genes involved in XyG biosynthesis and degradation possibly improve the tolerance of plants to stresses through influencing the cell wall structure (remodelling) and compositions. In addition, XyG and XyG oligosaccharides likely act as signaling molecules or cooperate with other signaling molecules to induce plant resistance. Here, we review the structure and variety of XyG, the genes involved in XyG biosynthesis and degradation, and advances in potential roles of XyG and XyG-related genes in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

Research Advances in the Main Ecological Functions of Root Exudates
Jiajia Li, Miaochun Fan, Zhouping Shangguan
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(6):  788-796.  doi:10.11983/CBB20036
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Root exudates play an important role in root-soil-microorganism interactions and ecological feedback mechanisms. Root exudates are considered as the medium of “rhizosphere dialogue” in the process of complex plant rhizosphere network interaction, with great impact in regulating plant adaptation to microhabitats, thus alleviating rhizosphere nutrient competition and constructing rhizosphere microbial community structure. Here, we review the recent advances on the effects of root exudates on plant growth, soil microbial characteristics such as soil enzymes, microbial biomass, and microbial community, and soil nutrient circulation. We also propose the important directions and contents of future research on root exudates.

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