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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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Current Issue
Editor-in-Chief:Kang Zhong
ISSN 1674-3466 CN 11-5705/Q
Post Code:2-967
Volume 57 Issue 5
01 September 2022
  
COMMENTARY
Choice of both Ways: Variations of Reverted Repeats Balance Environmental Adaptation and Yield in Maize
Wang Lei, Chong Kang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  555-558.  doi:10.11983/CBB22094
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Optimal Balance between high yield and stress tolerance is the goal of breeding, which is related to the strategy in choice of both ways. The questions such as which negative regulators of stress tolerance affect yield and how they function are important issues for breeding. Over the past century, owing to the breeding of high-yield varieties, the maize yield has been tremendously increased, but this is accompanied with the increased sensitivity to environmental stresses, and the genetic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. This restricts the breeding of maize cultivars with both high yield and stress tolerance. Both yield traits and stress tolerance are complex quantitative traits, determined by the expression and regulation of a large number of genes. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene expression regulators, and they are generated in large quantities from the maize genome. But the mechanisms underlying their regulation on crop stress responses and yield traits remain largely elusive. Recently, the group of Prof. Mingqiu Dai, collaborated with the groups of Prof. Lin Li and Prof. Feng Li at Huazhong Agricultural University, identified about ten-thousands of drought-responsive sRNAs and eQTLs associated with the expression of these sRNAs, by analyzing the sRNAome and transcriptome of a maize panel consisting 338 natural inbred lines grown under different environment conditions. They cloned an eQTL hotspot named DRESH8, which is a Transposable Element-mediated Inverted Repeat (TE-IR) in a length of about 21.4 kb. Genetic and molecular evidence showed that DRESH8-derived siRNAs directly inhibit the expression of the drought-resistant genes via a post-transcriptional silencing mechanism, and indirectly inhibit the expression of negative regulators of yield-related traits, thus negatively regulating drought response and positively regulate yield-related traits. Further analysis demonstrated that DRESH8 was selected during maize domestication and improvement. Their findings suggest that DRESH8 is a key genetic locus that balances maize yield and drought tolerance, and that IR-mediated balance between maize yield and drought resistance may be a universal mechanism. This study thus revealed a key genetic mechanism underlying balancing crop yield and environmental stress resistance at a genome-wide level, and provided a large number of valuable IR loci for breeding new maize varieties with both high yield and stress tolerance via genetic engineering approaches in the future.

INVITED REVIEWS
Peat Mosses (Sphagnum): Ecologically, Economically, and Scientifically Important Group of Carbon Sequestration Plants
Zhu Ruiliang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  559-578.  doi:10.11983/CBB22031
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Global warming is the most severe environmental challenge that mankind is facing now. In addition to effectively controlling carbon emissions, making the ecosystem work at full capacity of carbon sequestration is an important means to achieve the goal of carbon neutralization. As one of the wetland types with the highest carbon sequestration capacity, peatland is the key terrestrial ecosystem to accelerate the achievement of carbon neutrality goals. As the ‘effective ecosystem engineer’ on peatlands, peat moss (Sphagnum) plays an extremely important role in peatlands, such as carbon sink, freshwater filtering, and land protection from flooding. For more than 100 years, peat mosses, as the most economically valuable group of bryophytes, have been widely used in the fields of medicine and health care, pollution monitoring and wastewater treatment, especially in the horticultural industry as one of the most reliable soil media and moisturizing materials. In the context of global warming and the ‘two-carbon’ goal, peat moss is a research hotspot in life sciences and ecology. This paper mainly reviews the morphology, species diversity and origin, habitat and distribution, reproduction and protection, cultivation and planting, environmental indication and monitoring, usage and applications, capabilities of carbon sequestration, water storage and acidification. It provides a reference for peat moss research, peatland protection and restoration, as well as development, utilization, and industrial development of peat moss.

Research Progress on TZP, a Novel Key Regulator of Light Signal Transduction in Plants
Li Cong, Qi Lijuan, Gu Xiaofeng, Li Jigang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  579-587.  doi:10.11983/CBB22076
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TANDEM ZINC-FINGER/PLUS3 (TZP) is a recently characterized novel key component of light signal transduction in plants. Accumulating evidence indicates that TZP plays an important role in multiple processes of light-mediated plant growth and development. TZP acts as a negative regulator of blue light signaling, regulates phytochrome B (phyB)-dependent control of photoperiodic flowering, and is required for the phosphorylation of the far-red light photoreceptor phyA in vivo. Further investigation and full elucidation of the biochemical activity and regulatory mechanisms of TZP will not only provide new insights into the light signaling networks, but also facilitate the design and breeding of new crop varieties with ideal plant architecture and more efficient usage of solar energy. In this review, we systematically summarized the current understanding of the role of TZP in regulating light signaling pathways in plants, and discussed the important questions for further study on TZP functions.

EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS
QTL Mapping of Candidate Genes for Heading Date in Rice
Wei Heping, Lu Tao, Jia Qiwei, Deng Fei, Zhu Hao, Qi Zehua, Wang Yuxi, Ye Hanfei, Yin Wenjing, Fang Yuan, Mu Dan, Rao Yuchun
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  588-595.  doi:10.11983/CBB22114
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The heading date is an important trait that determines the yield and quality of rice, and plays an important role in the process of rice breeding, seed production, introduction and domestication. In this study, F1 was obtained by a cross between Nekken2 (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cv. ‘Nekken2’) and Huazhan (O. sativa subsp. indica cv. ‘HZ’), and 120 recombination inbred lines (RILs) were obtained through successive multi-generational selfing. The population of RILs was used as experimental material. Under the condition of conventional water and fertilizer management, the time of heading stage of 120 lines was analyzed. Using the high-density genetic map constructed by this population, the QTLs for the heading date was mapped and analyzed. A total of 11 QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12, respectively, and one of the LOD values was as high as 5.75. By analyzing the candidate genes in the QTLs interval, the related genes that may affect the heading date were screened out, and real-time quantitative PCR was used for gene expression analysis. The expression levels of six genes, LOC_Os03g03070, LOC_Os03g50310, LOC_Os03g55389, LOC_Os04g55510, LOC_Os08g07740, and LOC_Os08g01670 significantly different between parents, and the expression of LOC_Os03g50310 in Nekken2 was 3.6 times higher than that in HZ. In addition, the sequencing analysis showed that there were 4 differences in the 5'UTR, CDS region and 3'UTR of the candidate gene LOC_Os03g50310 between the parents, of which the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) difference in the CDS region caused a single amino acid change. This study provides new clues for further cloning of heading date-related genes and cultivar selection by mining the QTL loci related to heading date in rice.

Priming Effect of Abscisic Acid on High Temperature Stress During Rice Heading-flowering Stage
Liu Xiaolong, Ji Ping, Yang Hongtao, Ding Yongdian, Fu Jialing, Liang Jiangxia, Yu Congcong
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  596-610.  doi:10.11983/CBB22022
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To understand the priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on high temperature stress during rice heading-flowering stage, Huanghuazhan, a main rice variety in Jiangxi province, was used as experimental material. Six kinds of solutions were arranged to spray on rice at the booting stage, including distilled water, ABA solution (10, 50 and 100 µmol∙L-1), fluridone (FLU) and proanthocyanidins (PC), then the rice plants were moved to control (CK) and high temperature stress (HS) conditions for 8 d. The effects of ABA by spraying at booting stage were measured by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defense capacity, yield components and the expression levels of related genes. The results showed that significant negative correlations were detected between the panicle length, panicle weight, percentage of filled spikelets, 1 000-kernel weight, grain yield and contents of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide respectively. Spraying ABA solution significantly upregulated the expression of ABA-responsive and antioxidant defense genes, and decreased contents of ROS by 8.24%-31.35% under high temperature stress. The panicle length, panicle weight, percentage of filled spikelets and 1 000-kernel weight were significantly increased by spraying ABA solution, as well as the expression levels of yield related genes. The grain yield was increased by 12.73%-20.77% by spraying ABA solution under high temperature stress. The application of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, FLU, inhibited the ABA biosynthesis and leaded to excessive accumulation of ROS and yield loss under high temperature stress. While application of the antioxidant PC inhibited the excessive accumulation of ROS and improved grain yield under high temperature stress. These results suggested that spraying ABA solution at booting stage enhanced tolerance to high temperature stress in rice at heading-flowering stage by upregulating not only ABA signaling pathway, but also antioxidant defense activity and yield related genes, so as to further improve grain yield under high temperature stress.

Physiological and Molecular Response Mechanisms Under Low-temperature Stress in Lavandula angustifolia Leaves
Lin Haijiao, Qu Jiaqi, Liu Yinan, Yuan Zening
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  611-622.  doi:10.11983/CBB22046
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The growth and reproduction as well as quality and yield of Lavandula angustifolia, a valuable aromatic plant, are severely affected by low temperatures. In our previous study, a low-temperature tolerant lavender variety was obtained. This study revealed the physiological and molecular regulatory mechanisms of L. angustifolia in response to cold stress. The relevant cold tolerance genes were mined and analyzed using transcriptomic and bioinformatics approaches. The feasibility of external application of salicylic acid to alleviate -10°C freezing stress was also explored. The results showed that seven genes encoding fatty acid desaturases and transferases (LaFADs), three genes involved in the synthesis of soluble sugars (LaBAM1, LaSS2), 19 genes encoding late embryonic abundant proteins (LaLEAs), and seven genes encoding peroxidases (LaPODs) were found to be up-regulated at low temperatures, directing L. angustifolia to synthesize and accumulate protective substances which maintained membrane stability in response to stress. In addition, salicylic acid pretreatment at 150 mg·L-1 was effective in alleviating freezing damage to plants and could be used as a low-temperature protectant. This study provides a basis for further understanding molecular mechanism of L. angustifolia responding to low-temperature stress.

Effect of Nitrogen-doped Graphene Quantum Dots on Growth Direction of Primary Root in Arabidopsis thaliana
Ye Qing, Yan Xiaoyan, Chen Huize, Feng Jinlin, Han Rong
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  623-634.  doi:10.11983/CBB22048
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Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have substantial application potentials in various fields such as electrochemical biosensor, bioimaging and biomedicine. Therefore, with the increasing exposure to the public and environment, their biosafety has aroused increasing concerns in recent years. So far, the influence of GQDs on the growth and development of plants is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of nitrogen-doped GQDs (N-GQDs) treatment on the growth direction of primary root in Arabidopsis thaliana at cellular and molecular levels. We found that the N-GQDs were absorbed by roots and transported via vascular bundles. After the N-GQDs treatment at the concentration of 50-100 mg∙L-1, the growth direction of primary roots was changed, curving towards the outside of the culture medium. Because of the N-GQDs treatment, the starch granule accumulation of columnar cells was reduced, the abundance of auxin efflux carrier PIN3 was repressed, and the PIN3 in columnar cells was relocated to outer lateral membrane distant from the culture medium (towards the air), which resulted in the asymmetric auxin distribution in the root tips and the curved growth of primary roots towards a direction distant from the medium in order to run away from the high-concentration N-GQDs environment. The study results provide a reference direction for exploring the possible coping mechanism of plants with N-GQDs treatment, and also provide corresponding data for biosafety evaluation of N-GQDs.

Hrh-miRn458 Regulates Oil Biosynthesis of Sea Buckthorn via Targeting Transcription Factor WRI1
Yu Miao, Ruan Chengjiang, Ding Jian, Li Jingbin, Lu Shunguang, Wen Xiufeng
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  635-648.  doi:10.11983/CBB22004
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Transcription factor WRINKLED 1 (WRI1) plays important regulatory role in oil biosynthesis. Most studies focused on the regulation mechanism of its transcription, translation, and downstream target genes. Very few reports on its post transcriptional regulation. To explore the relationship between hrh-miRn458 and transcription factor WRI1 of sea buckthorn, and analyze their expression dynamics in oil biosynthesis of pulp and seeds, the bioinformatic method was used to predict the binding sites in the CDS region of the candidate target gene WRI1 by hrh-miRn458 mature sequence. Double luciferase reporter system and RNA pull down assay were used to verify whether hrh-miRn458 could target the CDS region of WRI1. The expression of hrh-miRn458 and WRI1 were analyzed using real-time fluorescent PCR technology in developing sea buckthorn pulp and seeds. The results showed that the positions between 309-327 of the CDS region of WRI1 gene were complementary to 15 bases of the mature hrh-miRn458 sequence. The vector of pmirGLO-WRI1-WT+hrh-miRn458 mimics significantly inhibited the luciferase activity (P<0.001), and RNA pull down assay further verified that hrh-miRn458 could pull down WRI1 in the system. In pulp and seeds of different developing stages, the expression level of hrh-miRn458 decreased at first and then increased, but the expression level of its target gene WRI1 first increased and then decreased. At the same developmental stage, the hrh-miRn458 expression level in pulp was less than that of seeds, but the expression level of its target gene WRI1 in pulp was more than that of seeds. Thus, sea buckthorn hrh-miRn458 may target the WRI1, and there is negatively regulative relationship between them. These data provide scientific references for further understanding the seed oil biosynthesis mechanism of sea buckthorn and breeding for high oil varieties.

The Chemical Composition and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal the Mechanism of Color Formation in Rosa hybrida cv. ‘Double delight’
Zhang Hechen, Wang Huijuan, Li Yanmin, Gao Jie, Yuan Xin, Wang Limin, Wang Xiaochen, Zhao Yinge, Fu Zhenzhu
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  649-660.  doi:10.11983/CBB22049
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Rosa species is one of world-famous ornamental flower with very rich colors. Rosa hybrida cv. ‘Double delight’ is very popular in the market due to the color-changing properties of petals. With analysis of the composition of flavonoids and carotenoids, combined with transcriptome analysis, we showed that the red petals were caused by the increasing of glycosylated anthocyanins, and the up-regulation of anthocyanin synthesis genes CHI, ANS and UFGT by R2R3-MYB transcription factor AN2-likes. However, the yellow petals were mainly due to the accumulation of the pigments of chlorophyll, carotenoids and flavonoids. The structural differences of carotenoids and the expression changes of related genes may play an important role in the petals’ discoloration, and miRNA156 might be involved in the regulation. This study revealed a molecular and chemical basis of the petal discoloration in rose Double delight and provided an important basis for the molecule design and breeding of flowers.

SPECIAL TOPICS
Alternative Splicing of Plant Genes: Full of Change, Sail with Wind
Hao Xuefeng, Wu Zhangjing, Ma Tian, Jin Zhuping, Pei Yanxi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  661-672.  doi:10.11983/CBB22041
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Alternative splicing is a process in which the mRNA precursor produces a variety of mature transcripts through different splicing mode. It is an important way in post transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. Plant genes also can produce diverse transcripts via alternative splicing on the same gene, so as to regulate a variety of biological processes. In plants, the research on this field lags behind that in animals, but great progresses have been made in recent years. In this review, we summarized the biological significance, splicing patterns, research methods of the alternative splicing, as well as its roles in the regulation in the growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Some perspectives and prospects are give for this research field.

Recent Advances of Ribosome Profiling in Plants
Wang Yuying, Wang Weihao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  673-683.  doi:10.11983/CBB22028
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With the great development and progress of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, many newborn techniques have provided solutions to unresolved biological puzzles. Ribosome profiling has emerged as an HTS-based technique that facilitates the genome-wide investigation of translation at single-nucleotide resolution, and it resolves the missing link between transcriptome and translatome. Ribosome profiling not only identifies the mRNAs in translation, but also provides precise positions of the ribosomes on mRNA to help identify the coding regions of the mRNAs. In addition, combined with the parallel RNA sequencing, ribosome profiling can determine the translation efficiency for each mRNA by comparing the rates of protein synthesis and the abundance of mRNAs. Based on its extraordinary advances, ribosome profiling has been successfully applied in animals, plants and microbes, and has thoroughly enhanced our understanding of translational regulation. However, due to the restrictions caused by the physical characteristics of plant cells and tissues, there are still considerable limitations in the application of ribosome profiling in plants. Here, we introduce the experimental principle of ribosome profiling and review the recent progresses made in botanical researches.

Research Progress on the Regulatory Mechanisms of ABA Signal Transduction in Guard Cells
Zhou Yuping, Yan Jiahao, Tian Chang’en
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  684-696.  doi:10.11983/CBB22006
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ABA plays important roles in regulating the rapid responses of plants to stresses. The ABA core signal pathway consists of ABA receptors PYR1/PYLs/RCARs, clade A protein phosphatases PP2Cs and protein kinases SnRK2s in plant cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ are the vital second messengers in guard cells that involved in the stomatal closure controlled by ABA. In this review, we focus on summarizing the latest research progresses on the regulations of core ABA signaling proteins in guard cells, ROS- and Ca2+-mediated guard cell ABA signal transductions, and attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of ABA signal transduction in guard cells.

Research Advances of the Plant ESCRT Machinery
Wu Fan, Shen Jinbo, Hu Shuai
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2022, 57(5):  697-712.  doi:10.11983/CBB22038
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In eucaryotic cells, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, consisting of the conserved multiple sub-complexes, plays important roles in both endocytic and secretory pathways. In plant cells, the ESCRT machinery consists of four ESCRT complexes (ESCRT-I, -II, -III, and the VPS4/SKD1 complex) and several ESCRT accessory proteins, but lacks of the ESCRT-0. Every ESCRT complex contains several subunit proteins. Recent researches have demonstrated that the ESCRT machinery plays an essential role in the vacuolar sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins via regulation the biogenesis of multivesicular body (MVB)/PVC (prevacuolar compartment) and autophagic pathway. Recent researches have demonstrated that the ESCRT machinery plays an essential role in the vacuolar sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins via regulation the biogenesis of multivesicular body (MVB)/PVC (prevacuolar compartment) and autophagosome as well as response to environmental stresses. In this review, we firstly introduce the subunits and biological functions of the ESCRT machinery in plants, and then summarize the latest research advances on the plant-specific ESCRT complex components. Finally, we discuss future study on the unsolved scientific problems of the ESCRT complex in plants.

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