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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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Current Issue
Editor-in-Chief:Kang Zhong
ISSN 1674-3466 CN 11-5705/Q
Post Code:2-967
Volume 55 Issue 5
01 September 2020
  
COMMENTARIES
Antifungal Compounds Come in Handy
Jian-Min Zhou, Lidong Cao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  533-536.  doi:10.11983/CBB20158
Abstract ( 235 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (686KB) ( 387 )   Save
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Pathogenic microbes employ specialized mechanisms to breach defense of host plants, causing diseases on plants and losses in agricultural production. Understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis offers new avenues for disease control. A team from Sichuan Agriculture University led by Xuewei Chen investigated mechanisms underlying the genera- tion of an infection structure called penetration peg, which is employed by many fungal pathogens such as the one causing blast disease on rice. They discovered that very-long-chain fatty acids are required for this process. They further demonstrated that a group of commercialized herbicides capable of inhibiting very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in fungi can effectively inhibit pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of fungi, which brings new technology to control diseases and provides new ideas for new pesticides discovery.

WUSCHEL-mediated Innate Immunity in Plant Stem Cells Provides a Novel Antiviral Strategy
Fei Du, Yuling Jiao
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  537-540.  doi:10.11983/CBB20149
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Stem cells in plant shoot apical meristem maintain a high level of pluripotency, providing the source of all above-ground tissues and organs. Since plants cannot move to escape from various stresses, protection of plant stem cells from viruses and other pathogens is essential for plant growth and development. Although it has long been known that compared with other parts of the plant, the shoot apex containing the stem cell niche is against virus invasion and accumulation, the related mechanism is still elusive. A recent study from the group of Zhong Zhao at University of Science and Technology of China uncovered the mechanism of how plant stem cells in Arabidopsis are immune to virus infection through WUS-mediated innate immunity. WUS responses to the infection of cucumber mosaic virus, and represses virus accumulation in the central zone and peripheral zone. WUS directly represses the transcription of several S-adenosyl- L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase genes, resulting in disturbed rRNA processing and ribosome stability which affecting viral protein synthesis. This study reveals a conserved and broad-spectrum strategy of antiviral immunity in plant stem cells, which provides high values in both theory and application.

INVITED REVIEW
Advances of LORELEI-like Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor (LLG) Proteins in Plants
Sijia Li, Yongxue Zhang, Mingsheng Jia, Ying Li, Shaojun Dai
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  541-550.  doi:10.11983/CBB20058
Abstract ( 221 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2373KB) ( 150 )   Save
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The outer surface of plasma membrane (PM)-localized LORELEI-like glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor (LLG) proteins, as the molecular chaperone of CrRLK1Ls family of receptor-like kinase, are involved in the transport of CrRLKs and extracellular signal transduction, regulating plant reproduction, development, as well as immune and stress responses. LLG2/3 interacting with ANX and BUPS regulates pollen tube growth and rupture. LLG1 interacted with FER activates the ROPGEF1-ROP2-NADPH oxidase pathway for ROS production, and then promotes root cell elongation and root hair growth. Besides, LLG1, as co-receptor of FER, interacts with RALFs, and then regulates G protein β (AGB1), PM H +-ATPase activity, as well as the homeostasis of intracellular ROS and Ca 2+, for modulating stomata and roots in response to salinity. For immune response, LLG1 interacts with FLS2 and EFR, activating the downstream RbohD for ROS production. This review provides important information for understanding LLG biological functions.

EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS
Molecular Mechanism of the Generation of Asexual Spores of the Mango Fungal Pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Induced by Mechanical Injuries
Liyan Wang, Mengyao Lu, Yue Tong, Xiangbin Xu, Zhengke Zhang, Lanhuan Meng, Xuequn Shi, Haichao Song
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  551-563.  doi:10.11983/CBB20026
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Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a prevalent pathogen that causes anthracnose in mango (Mangifera indica). Mycelium of C. gloeosporioides will accumulate a large number of conidia in 24-48 hours after mechanical injuries. However, it often accumulates none or few conidia during indoor culture, and the gene regulatory networks of the response to injury for a short-time (ST), or the key metabolic pathways involved in the response has not been explored. In this study, RNA-seq was carried out on RNA samples obtained at 5 time points within 2 hours after mechanical injuries. The differentially expressed genes were enriched by GO enrichment and KEGG metabolic pathway. The expression dynamics of mycelia in response to ST injury stress was analyzed. Based on a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model coupled with variable selection techniques, inter-module networks were constructed. The results showed that 417 differentially expressed genes were obtained, which belong to 12 clustered modules. KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes was enriched in the process of pyruvate metabolism, sulfur metabolism, aflatoxin biosynthesis, diterpenoid biosynthesis. Combined with functional annotation, 12 core genes were identified that significantly correlated with ST injury-induced expression. These results provide valuable references for further research on asexual development and pathogenicity in C. gloeosporioides.

Effects of Space Treatment on Biological and Growth Characteristics of Camellia sinensis
Jianfu Liu, Yucai Chen, Wenjian Wang, Hechuan Wang, Jinfu Cai, Mingyuan Wang, Dandan Li, Bin Zhang, Kun Huang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  564-572.  doi:10.11983/CBB20035
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Six SP1 lines of Camellia sinensis carried by Shenzhou No.8 spacecraft were used as materials to study the effects of space flight on leaf morphology, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, content of photosynthetic pigment and soluble sugar and protein, and quality components of Wuyimingcong. The growth and physiological characteristics of Wuyimingcong after space treatment were analyzed for subsequent variety selection. The results showed that leaf length, leaf width, internode length, and leaf area of the six SP1 lines of Wuyimingcong were affected by space flight. Space treatment significantly increased the leaf areas of varieties of Queshe, Rougui, and Qidan, the chlorophyll contents and carotenoid contents of Queshe, Qidan, Rougui, and Jinmaohou varieties, as well as their instantaneous chlorophyll fluorescence (Ft) and quantum efficiency (Qy). After space flight, the contents of soluble sugar increased and the contents of protein decreased. The contents of amino acids and tea polyphenols decreased while the contents of total catechins and caffeine increased. Based on the above indexes, Queshe can be selected as a useful mutant line among the six SP1 lines of Wuyimingcong.

INVITED PROTOCOLS
Methods for Identification and Resistance Evaluation of Barley Slow Rusting to Leaf Rust
Mingzhe Che, Yajun Wang, Chuangxin Ma, Xiaoquan Qi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  573-576.  doi:10.11983/CBB20074
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Successful pathogen inoculation and following accurate rating are the basis of barley disease resistance studies. Here, we summarized selected barley leaf rust inoculation methods including spraying and smearing, and two evaluation indexes which are widely used in barley slow rusting evaluation. Key issues worthy affecting the assays were also discussed.

Methods for Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Blast and Sheath Blight Diseases
Min He, Junjie Yin, Zhiming Feng, Xiaobo Zhu, Jianhua Zhao, Shimin Zuo, Xuewei Chen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  577-587.  doi:10.11983/CBB20100
Abstract ( 425 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (10846KB) ( 311 )   Save
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Rice is the most important crop in the world. However, rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani are two of diseases, which threaten both yield and quality of rice most severely. To ensure food security, it is very important to identify disease-resistant rice germplasm, clone disease resistant genes, uncover the molecular basis and apply them in rice breeding program. Accurate evaluation of the disease resistance of rice is fundamental to both uncover disease resistance mechanism and improve resistance in rice breeding. Here, we describe the common methods for evaluating rice blast disease resistance by spraying inoculation of seedlings with M. oryzae, injection inoculation at rice tillering and booting stage, and punch inoculation of detached rice leaves. We also describe the methods for evaluating rice sheath blight disease resistance by field inoculation with R. solani at rice tillering stage, greenhouse inoculation at rice booting stage, and inoculation of rice detached-stems in growth chamber. We believe these methods could provide useful protocols for colleagues who aim to identify rice disease-resistant resources, dissect the underlying molecular mechanism and breed elite rice varieties with improved disease resistance.

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS
A Regeneration System for Organogenesis and Somatic Embryogenesis Using Leaves of Agapanthus praecox as Explants
Jianhua Yue, Yan Dong, Xiaohua Wang, Peixia Sun, Siying Wang, Xinnian Zhang, Yan Zhang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  588-595.  doi:10.11983/CBB20019
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A regeneration system for organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in vitro was established by using leaves of Agapanthus praecox as explants, and different cultivation media for transplanting were selected for the best effect. The results showed that picloram (PIC) was effective in callus induction of leaves, and the optimal medium was MS+2.0 mg·L -1 PIC. The callus induction rate was determined by the meristematic activity of leaf segments. The callus induction rate of the basal tissues on the 1 st-2 nd euphyll was 85.71%, and the callus induction rate was 66.48% in meristematic zone of 0-0.5 cm of the same leaf. The results also showed that the callus induction efficiency was higher in the middle of leaf transection compared with that at the edge. The optimal medium for adventitious bud induction was MS+1.5 mg·L -1 PIC+0.3 mg·L -1 6-BA, and the induction rate was 80.27%. The basic MS medium was suitable for somatic embryo induction, but the induction rate would be significantly increased if 0.05 mg·L -1 paclobutrazol and 1.0 mg·L -1abscisic acid were added. Plantlets proliferation was promoted by 1.0 mg·L -1 6-BA, and the proliferation coefficients of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis pathway were 2.23 and 2.93, respectively. The combination of peat:perlite: vermiculite=1:1:1 (v/v/v) was proved the suitable substrate for transplanting and acclimatization of plantlets, with a survival rate of 100%. This regeneration system provides a rapid and efficient propagation technology for A. praecox, and also provides a reference for the regeneration of monocotyledon explants in vitro.

An Improved Protocol for Whole Mount Clearing of Plant Root Tip
Long Ma, Guilin Li, Shipeng Li, Su Jiang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  596-604.  doi:10.11983/CBB20016
Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (9273KB) ( 300 )   Save
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Whole mount clearing is a routine method in morphological study, which allows observation of plant internal structure without section. Using high refractive index materials as medium, clearing techniques reduce light scattering, acquire enhancive light quantity and increase depth of field and vertical planes in a particular focal plane, to facilitate the samples transparency for observation. Nevertheless, clearing materials may disturb the osmosis and pH of sample medium, which is adverse to cells morphology. So far, the effective clearing techniques have been widely used in several studies with ovule and leaf. However, the current protocol is not reliable enough for root tip clearing, because the thin cell wall is vulnerable under the treatment of clearing solutions, resulting in abnormal root tips and cells plasmolysis. To achieve a stable and optimized clearing method for root tip, we established a standard protocol via evaluation of root tip morphology, plasmolysis and cells clarity in Arabidopsis thaliana. With these improved clearing methods, we developed an optimized clearing observation system (including clearing time, pH and composition) for root tip, which could provide a reliable technique for vulnerable tissues clearing.

Optimization of the Regeneration System from Somatic Embryogenesis in Larix olgensis
Jianfei Liu, Yan Liu, Kejian Liu, Yang Chi, Zhifa Huo, Yonghong Huo, Xiangling You
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  605-612.  doi:10.11983/CBB20030
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In this study, immature zygotic embryos of Larix olgensis were used as explants to induce embryogenic callus and optimize the regeneration system from somatic embryogenesis. The rejuvenation and preservation of the embryogenic potential of embryogenic callus, the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were investigated through adjusting the nutrition and plant growth regulator. The results showed that the generation rates of embryogenic callus were significantly different among different lines. Under the conditions of S+0.2 mg·L -1NAA+0.5 mg·L -1BA+0.5 mg·L -1KT+0.5 g·L -1glutamine+0.5 g·L -1hydrolyzed casein+30 g·L -1sucrose and 3.0 g·L -1vegetable gel, the embryogenic potential of embryonic callus could be recovered and maintained for a long time. Somatic embryogenesis were induced from embryonic callus cultured in S+20 mg·L -1ABA+60 g·L -1PEG4000+60 g·L -1sucrose and 3.0 g·L -1vegetable gel for 6 weeks, and the generation rate of somatic embryo reached 100%. The normal somatic embryos were first cultured for 2 weeks under the conditions of WPM+6 mg·L -1phloglucinol+1.0 g·L -1active carbon+3.0 mg·L -1VB1+20 g·L -1sucrose and 3.0 g·L -1vegetable gel, and then transferred to B5+0.4 mg·L -1NAA+1.0 mg·L -1IBA+0.5 mg·L -1GA3+2.0 mg·L -1VB1+1.0 g·L -1active carbon+20 g·L -1sucrose and 3.0 g·L -1vegetable gel. After 2 weeks, somatic embryo plantlets with cotyledon stretch, hypocotyl elongation and normal root system were observed. This study established a method for the recovery and maintenance of embryogenic callus from larch, and further optimized the somatic embryogenic pathway, which will lay a foundation for the rapid breeding and genetic improvement of L. olgensis.

SPECIAL TOPICS
Advances in Genetic Studies of the Awn in Cereal Crops
Fei Qi, Piyi Xing, Yinguang Bao, Honggang Wang, Xingfeng Li
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  613-622.  doi:10.11983/CBB19236
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The awn is an important structure on the panicles of many cereal crops, which can not only be used as an important morphological character to distinguish different varieties and as a morphological marker for genetic mapping, but also play an important role in seed transmission, grain filling, transpiration and yield. Here we summarize the recent advancement of studies on the structure, function and genetic mechanism of the awn in wheat, barley and rice, which may provide a reference for the further studies on the genetic mechanism of the awn development, and for the application in breeding.

Influence Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes
Weiqin Zhang, Hang Zou, Nina Zhang, Xueyuan Lin, Juan Chen
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  623-633.  doi:10.11983/CBB20034
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Legume-rhizobium symbiosis is genetically co-regulated by the genes of both partners. The symbiosis process involves the formation of special nodule structure where the inert nitrogen (N2) from the atmosphere is converted into ammonia nitrogen that can be directly used by plants. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation are affected by many factors. As a free radical reactive gas signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of many plant growth and development processes, such as respiration, photomorphogenesis, seed germination, tissue and organ development, aging, and response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the legumes, it has been found that NO not only affects the establishment of the symbiotic relationship between the host and the bacteria, but also is involved in regulating the fixation of nitrogen by the rhizobia and increases the efficiency of nitrogen nutrition utilization. Here we review the mechanism of NO regulating nodule formation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume-rhizobium symbiosis system, including the production and degradation of NO in legumes and rhizobia and its effect on nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and their response to environmental stress. We discuss the prospects and challenges of studying NO signaling molecule in symbiotic nitrogen fixation system of legume-rhizobium.

Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Graft Healing Process
Lulu Xie, Qingqing Cui, Chunjuan Dong, Qingmao Shang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  634-643.  doi:10.11983/CBB20061
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Grafting can significantly improve target traits such as yield, quality, and resistance of vegetable varieties, and is widely applied in agricultural practice. Prompting graft healing between scion and stock at the graft interface is necessary to improve graft efficiency. Currently the improvement on the technology is hampered by our lack of understanding of regulatory mechanisms of graft healing. The graft healing process involves complicated and cross-linked physiological events, including wounding stress response, callus formation, cell communication between scion and stock, and the regeneration and reunion of scion and stock. Recent research has provided a good foundation for our understanding the molecular mechanisms of graft healing. In this review, we summarize the central roles of phytohormones in each of the physiological events, and the phytohormone-dependent and -independent gene regulatory networks in graft healing, to provide a reference for further studying graft healing-related molecular mechanisms.

Antimicrobial Activity of Aromatic Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Animal Production
Yuanpeng Hao, Jingyi Li, Rui Yang, Hui Li, Hongtong Bai, Lei Shi
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  644-657.  doi:10.11983/CBB20029
Abstract ( 198 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1652KB) ( 228 )   Save
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Essential oils (EOs), volatile oily liquid extracted from aromatic plants, are vital secondary metabolites with the characteristic odor. The antimicrobial activities are determined by chemical compositions and concentrations of EOs. Of these, phenols, oxygenous terpenoids and terpenes possess significant antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial mechanisms of EOs mainly involve in the alteration of fatty acids outer membrane, damaging of cytoplasmic membrane, depletion of proton-motive force and leakage of metabolites and ions. In the production systems of animal husbandry, misuse of antibiotics leads to the generation of “super bacteria”, and antibiotic residues cause the problems of animal by-products unsafety and environmental pollution. Aromatic EOs serve as natural antimicrobial agents with advantages of low toxicity and no residues, thus EOs can be used as feed additives to replace the antibiotics for animal health. This review article describes the active compounds and antimicrobial mechanisms of aromatic EOs as well as their applications in animal production, and emphasizes the application of new technologies in the research of antimicrobial mechanisms. This article will provide the theoretical basis for the application of aromatic EOs in the animal production.

Cyrus Tang Innovation Center for Crop Seed Industry
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2020, 55(5):  1-1. 
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