植物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (1): 4-8.DOI: 10.11983/CBB18212

• 热点评 • 上一篇    下一篇

虾青素功能米: 生物强化新思路, 优质米培育新资源

朱丽(),钱前()   

  1. 中国水稻研究所水稻生物学国家重点实验室, 杭州 311401
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-11 接受日期:2018-12-10 出版日期:2019-01-30 发布日期:2019-05-17
  • 通讯作者: 朱丽,钱前

Astaxanthin Functional Rice: New Idea of Biofortification, New Perspectives for High-quality Rice Breeding

Li Zhu(),Qian Qian()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 311401, China
  • Received:2018-10-11 Accepted:2018-12-10 Online:2019-01-30 Published:2019-05-17
  • Contact: Li Zhu,Qian Qian

摘要:

虾青素是一种红色的类酮胡萝卜素, 与其它类胡萝卜素或维生素E相比具有更强的抗氧化活性, 在延缓衰老、提高免疫力、防治糖尿病和心血管疾病等方面均有功效, 目前已广泛应用于制药、保健和日化等行业。但其合成必需基因BKT仅存在于部分微藻、细菌和酵母中, 大多数高等动、植物中并不存在。人类仅可以从三文鱼、贝类和鳟鱼等海洋生物中少量摄取虾青素。水稻(Oryza sativa)作为世界上最重要的粮食作物, 是全世界近1/2 (我国2/3)人口的主粮。稻米中缺乏类胡萝卜素前体, 因此无法自主合成虾青素, 且多年来在水稻中人工合成虾青素的尝试均未获得成功。近期, 中国科学家首次利用自创的多基因垛叠表达系统, 成功获得了富含β-胡萝卜素的黄金米, 富含角黄素的角黄素米和富含虾青素的赤晶米, 实现了从前体、中间产物到终产物的精准合成。

关键词: 虾青素, 生物强化, 多基因转化, 水稻

Abstract:

Astaxanthin, a red-colored ketocarotenoid, has stronger antioxidant activity than other carotenoids or vitamin E. It has been reported in anti-aging, improving immunity, preventing and treating several diseases and widely used in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and the aquaculture industry. However, β-carotene ketolase genes exist only in some species of microalgae, bacteria and yeast and not in most higher animals and plants. Humans consume astaxanthin mainly from some seafood, such as salmon, shellfish, and trout. Rice, as the most important food crop in the world, is the main grain of nearly half of the world and two thirds of China’s population. However, rice lacks carotenoid precursors, and the engineered biosynthesis of astaxanthin in rice has not been successful. Recently, Chinese scientists successfully engineered sophisticated β-carotene, keratin and astaxanthin biosynthesis in rice endosperm by the self-made multi-gene stacking expression system, which achieved precise synthesis from precursors and intermediate to final products regulated by a complex metabolic network.

Key words: astaxanthin, biofortification, multiple gene transformation, rice