Chin Bull Bot ›› 2019, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (1): 119-132.doi: 10.11983/CBB18047

• SPECIAL TOPICS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Regulatory Mechanism of Thioredoxin (Trx) in Chloroplasts

Qin Tong1,2,Huang Zhen2,*(),Kang Zhenhui1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000, China;
    2 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
  • Received:2018-02-17 Accepted:2018-05-23 Online:2019-07-31 Published:2019-01-01
  • Contact: Huang Zhen,Kang Zhenhui;


Thioredoxins (Trx), a family of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases, function as protein disulfide reductases to disulfide isomerases or to disulfide transferases to regulate the structure and function of intracellular proteins by modifying disulfide bonds between two cysteine residues in the side chain of the substrate proteins. The chloroplast Trx systems includes Trx and Trx-like proteins, ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent thioredoxin C (NADPH Trx reductase C, NTRC). In addition to regulating the activity of stromal enzymes and transportation of chloroplast proteins by the Trx system, the chloroplast contains a reduction potential transfer pathway across the thylakoid membrane. The reduction potential of the substrate Trx is mediated by the transmembrane transporter and finally to the thylakoid lumenal protein. FTR and NTRC coordinate to regulate chloroplast homeostasis. This paper summarizes the regulatory mechanism of the chloroplast thioredoxin system that highlights the significance of the chloroplast Trx system in maintaining photosynthetic efficiency in plants.

Key words: chloroplast, disulfide, photosynthetic efficiency, redox, thioredoxin

Table 1

Chloroplast Trx systems in Arabidopsis"

名称 登录号 氧化还原电位* 功能 参考文献
FTRA1 AT5G23440 -356 mV 还原酶 Balsera et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014; Yoshida and Hisabori, 2017
FTRA2 AT5G08410 -356 mV 还原酶 Balsera et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014; Yoshida and Hisabori, 2017
FTRB AT2G04700 -356 mV 还原酶 Balsera et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014; Yoshida and Hisabori, 2017
NTRC AT2G41680 -330 mV 还原酶 Michalska et al., 2009; Chae et al., 2013; Bernal-Bayard et al., 2014; Puerto-Galán et al., 2015; Carrilloet al., 2016; Naranjo et al., 2016b; Pérez-Ruiz et al., 2017
Trx f1 AT3G02730 -321 mV (pH7.5) 调节FBPase和ATP合酶(CF 1 γ亚基)活性, 氧化胁迫 Hisabori et al., 2013; Yoshida et al., 2015
Trx f2 AT5G16400 -321 mV (pH7.5) 调节FBPase和ATP合酶(CF 1 γ亚基)活性, 氧化胁迫 Hisabori et al., 2013; Yoshida et al., 2015
Trx m1 AT1G03680 -335 mV (pH7.5) 调节Calvin-Benson循环酶活性 Okegawa and Motohashi, 2015
Trx m2 AT4G03520 -335 mV (pH7.5) 调节Calvin-Benson循环酶活性 Okegawa and Motohashi, 2015
Trx m3 AT2G15570 -316 mV (pH7.5) 胞内蛋白运输和分生组织维持 Benitez-Alfonso et al., 2009
Trx m4 AT3G15360 -312 mV (pH7.5) 调节Calvin-Benson循环酶活性, 环形电子传递 Okegawa and Motohashi, 2015
Trx y1 AT1G76760 -296 mV (pH7.5) 胁迫响应 Okegawa and Motohashi, 2015
Trx y2 AT1G43560 -295 mV (pH7.5) 硫代谢 Laugier et al., 2013
Trx x AT1G50320 -310 mV (pH7.5) 胁迫响应 Bernal-Bayard et al., 2014
Trx z AT3G06730 -276 mV (pH7.5) 质体转录胁迫应激 Arsova et al., 2010; Chibani et al., 2011; Díaz et al., 2018
HCF164 At4G37200 -224 mV ** Cyt b6f复合体装配 Motohashi and Hisabori, 2010
LTO1 AT4G35760 -180 mV *** 蛋白折叠 Wang et al., 2011; Karamoko et al., 2011, 2013
SOQ1 At1G56500 未知 光抑制淬灭 Brooks et al., 2013
CDSP32 AT1G76080 -337 mV (pH7.9) 调节MSRB1的活性 Tarrago et al., 2010
AtACHT1 (Lilium 5) AT4G26160 -237 mV 抗氧化 Dangoor et al., 2009, 2012
AtACHT2a (Lilium 2) AT4G29670.1 -239 mV 未知 Dangoor et al., 2009
AtACHT2b (Lilium 2) AT4G29670.2 未知 未知 Dangoor et al., 2009
AtACHT3 (Lilium 4) AT2G33270 未知 未知 Dangoor et al., 2009
AtACHT4a (Lilium 1) AT1G08570.1 -240 mV 淀粉合成 Dangoor et al., 2009; Eliyahu et al., 2015
AtACHT4b (Lilium 1) AT1G08570.2 未知 淀粉合成 Dangoor et al., 2009; Eliyahu et al., 2015
AtACHT5 (Lilium 3) AT5G61440 未知 未知 Dangoor et al., 2009
WCRKC1 AT5G06690 未知 冷胁迫 Chibani et al., 2011
WCRKC2 AT5G04260 未知 冷胁迫 Chibani et al., 2011

Figure 1

Chloroplast Trx systems and their functions The Trx systems in chloroplast play important roles in regulating key enzymes of Calvin cycle, plastid biogenesis, sulfur metabolism, stress response, and the synthesis of chlorophyll, tetrapyrrole, and starch. Since FTR affects all 5 Trx proteins, the lines are not marked in the figure. The target of SOQ1 on the PSII subunits is still unknown."

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