Type I H+-PPase is involved in gluconeogenesis and sucrose catabolism. Different types of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana type I H+-PPase gene fed with different sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) showed various phenotypes. Therefore, it is speculated that type I H+-PPase may contain other mechanisms that affect sugar metabolism. In order to further clarify the effect of the enzyme on sugar metabolism, phenotypes of the MtVP1 overexpressed potato Weishu 4 were observed under different culture conditions. The fluctuation of sugar content was monitored, and the transcription profile was analyzed. The results showed that the MtVP1 overexpressed potato grew red stem, purple flower, and more developed trichomes. Furthermore, tubers per plant decreased in number, but became larger in size, and shriveled up faster. However, the transgenic plant had significantly decreased starch, glucose, and fructose contents in tubers, and glucose and fructose contents in buds. At the same time, feeding fructose significantly reduced the anthocyanin, and up-regulated the gene expression of fructose-1,6-diphosphate and fructose-2,6-diphosphate by 3-7 fold in the transgenic potato. The results could shed light on further studies of the physiological function of type I H+-PPase from the perspective of sugar metabolism.