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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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Current Issue
Editor-in-Chief:Kang Zhong
ISSN 1674-3466 CN 11-5705/Q
Post Code:2-967
Volume 55 Issue 3
01 May 2020
  
REVIEW BY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Achievements and Advance in Chinese Plant Sciences in 2019
Jianru Zuo, Xiaoquan Qi, Rongcheng Lin, Qian Qian, Hongya Gu, Fan Chen, Shuhua Yang, Zhiduan Chen, Yongfei Bai, Lei Wang, Xiaojing Wang, Liwen Jiang, Langtao Xiao, Kang Chong, Tai Wang
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  257-269.  doi:10.11983/CBB20108
Abstract ( 1843 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (912KB) ( 739 )   Save
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Chinese researchers in plant sciences published more original papers in international top journals and mainstream journals of plant science than last year, and made remarkable achievements in several areas. Research on the supramolecular structure and function of diatom photosynthetic membrane proteins was selected in the top 10 achievements in Chinese Sciences in 2019 and the top achievements of Chinese Life Sciences in 2019. Research on the structure and function of plant disease-resistant bodies was selected in the top 10 achievements of Chinese Life Sciences in 2019. In this review, we provide a commentary on the significant progress made by Chinese researchers in plant sciences this year.

COMMENTARY
Small RNA, No Small Feat: Plants Deploy 22 nt siRNAs to Cope with Environmental Stress
Liang Wu, Yijun Qi
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  270-273.  doi:10.11983/CBB20070
Abstract ( 315 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1998KB) ( 232 )   Save
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RNAs can be classified into protein-coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are generated by Dicer-LIKEs (DCLs) and RNA Dependent RNA Polymerases (RDRs). They are associated with different ARGONAUTE (AGO) effector complexes and play important regulatory roles in diverse biological processes. 21 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the most abundant classes of sRNAs in plants. The mechanisms of their biogenesis and functions are well studied. However, the functions of other less abundant sRNAs remain largely unknown. A recent study from Prof. Hongwei Guo's group at Southern University of Science and Technology showed that a class of 22 nt siRNAs is produced by RDR6 and DCL2 when plants are under certain stress conditions, especially upon nitrogen deficiency. These 22 nt siRNAs are loaded into AGO1 and mediate translational repression of target mRNAs including nitrate reductase structural genes NIA1/2, thereby minimizing energy consumption. This work elegantly shows that plants deploy 22 nt siRNAs to achieve a deliberate balance between growth and defense in response to environmental stress.

INVITED REVIEW
Critical Thinking, Alternative Interpretation, and Logic Consistency —To Commemorate the 100 Birthday of then Professor Tsunghsing Tsao (Zong-Xun Cao), the Founding Editor-in-chief of the Chinese Bulletin of Botany
Shunong Bai
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  274-278.  doi:10.11983/CBB20066
Abstract ( 136 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1010KB) ( 124 )   Save
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May 4th 2020 is the 100th birthday of the then professor Tsunghsing Tsao (Zong-Xun Cao), the founding editor-in-chief of the Chinese Bulletin of Botany. To commemorate this special moment, the author shared some pieces of his memory upon the first meeting with her, the experience of carried on her almost life-long project of study of unisexual flower development in cucumber, and the finding of the logic inconsistency between our experimental observations and traditional interpretation of unisexual flower as a model system to investigate plant sex differentiation. In addition, the author shared some of his thought on what is scientific research, which was intrigued from his unique experience of working with the unisexual flower of cucumber. The thought might provide an alternative view on the issue for the youth who are interested in dedicating into exploration of unknown nature.

EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS
Identification of a New OsBRI1 Weak Allele and Analysis of its Function in Grain Size Control
Liurong Guan, Zupei Liu, Ran Xu, Penggen Duan, Guozheng Zhang, Haiyue Yu, Jing Li, Yuehua Luo, Yunhai Li
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  279-286.  doi:10.11983/CBB19239
Abstract ( 175 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1346KB) ( 170 )   Save
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Rice (Oryza sativa) grain size and grain weight are key agronomic traits that affect rice yield. Cloning and study of grain size genes are helpful to increase rice production. In order to further understand the mechanism of rice grain size control, a set of mutants with altered grain size from an EMS-treated elite japonica cultivar KYJ (Kuanyejing) were isolated. smg12 exhibits small grains, short plants, and reduced number of primary branches and secondary branches. Genetic analyses show that the smg12 mutant phenotypes are controlled by a single recessive gene. Our celluar analyses show that the small grain size phenotype of smg12 is caused by the decrease in cell size of glumes, indicating that SMG12 affects cell expansion. By using the Mutmap method, we reveal that the candidate gene for SMG12 is OsBRI1, which encodes a brassinolide receptor kinase. The smg12 mutant causes a substitution of the 2 074th base (C to T) in OsBRI1, which results in an amino acid change (proline to serine). Therefore, this study identified a new mutant allele of OsBRI1 and provides a cellular and molecular basis for BR-mediated grain size control in rice.

Intron Loss and Molecular Evolution Rate of rpoC1 in Ferns
Yang Peng, Yingjuan Su, Ting Wang
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  287-298.  doi:10.11983/CBB19105
Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1410KB) ( 58 )   Save
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The rpoC1 gene encodes the RNA polymerase β' subunit protein, which binds to the DNA template during transcription, and the β-β' subunit complex formed with the β subunit constitutes a catalytic center for RNA synthesis. In this study, the rpoC1 gene mutations in ferns were surveyed. With Bayes factor greater than 20, HyPhy site model detected 3 positive selection sites and 541 negative selection sites; the PAML site model detected 10 positive selection sites, three of which had posterior probabilities greater than 99%. In addition, a phylogenetic tree of 64 ferns was constructed based on the maximum likelihood method. We calculated the transition rate, transversion rate, transition rate/transversion rate, synonymous substitution rate, nonsynonymous substitution rate, and synonymous substitution rate/nonsynonymous substitution rate by HyPhy to analyze the relationship between intron loss of rpoC1 gene and molecular evolution rates. The results indicate that intron loss of the rpoC1 gene might play a role in its transition rate, transversion rate and nonsynonymous substitution rate in ferns.

Cloning and Expression Analysis of Different Truncated U3 Promoters in Phyllostachys edulis
Huijin Fan, Kangming Jin, Renying Zhuo, Guirong Qiao
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  299-307.  doi:10.11983/CBB19217
Abstract ( 132 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (19220KB) ( 69 )   Save
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The U3 and U6 promoters with well-defined transcription initiation sites are important elements driving sgRNA transcription in the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. According to the two sequences of PeU3 promoter cloned from Phyllostachys edulis, six different truncated U3 promoters were successfully cloned and were 550 bp, 397 bp, 149 bp, and 561 bp, 392 bp, 152 bp, respectively in length. GUS and LUC expression vectors were constructed by corresponding truncated promoter and transformed into the callus of Dendrocalamus latiflorus and tobacco leaf by the Agrobacterium-mediated method, respectively. Our results indicate that, all of these U3 promoters have different transcriptional activity, and the Peu3-1-2pro promoter with a length of 397 bp has the strongest activity. It provides more ideal endogenous promoters for constructing CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system of P. edulis.

Patterns and Influence Factors of Fine Root Turnover in Forest Ecosystems
Jianing Zhao, Yun Liang, Ying Liu, Yujue Wang, Qianru Yang, Chunwang Xiao
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  308-317.  doi:10.11983/CBB19231
Abstract ( 203 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (965KB) ( 93 )   Save
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Root turnover is a key process in the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems, and plays an important role in studying soil carbon pool changes and global climate change. Various methods for measuring root turnover rate have been described, from which highly variable results are obtained. Moreover, the studies on root turnover in large regional scales are not sufficient, making the patterns of root turnover in global forest ecosystem still not clear. This study integrates the fine root turnover spatial pattern of five forest types in the world by collecting literature data and unifying the calculation method of turnover rate. Combined with soil physical and chemical properties and climate data, several factors driving the fine root turnover of forest ecosystems are obtained. We show that there was a significant difference in the different forest ecosystems and the fine root turnover rate almost decreased with the increase of latitude. The fine root turnover rate of forest ecosystems was positively correlated to the mean annual temperature and the mean annual precipitation. The fine root turnover rate of forest ecosystems was positively correlated to the soil organic carbon content but negatively correlated to soil pH. This study provides a model to study the fine root turnover laws and mechanisms of forest ecosystems.

TECHNIQUE AND METHOD
Establishment of In Vitro Regeneration System of Helenium aromaticum
Hong Luo, Xiaohui Wen, Yuanyuan Zhou, Silan Dai
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  318-328.  doi:10.11983/CBB19211
Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (5700KB) ( 105 )   Save
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Helenium aromaticum has a fragrant odor and its capitulum contains only disk flowers. H. aromaticum is a good model for studying development of floral patterns in Compositae. However, methods for genetic transformation of H. aromaticum is currently not available. In this study, we report the establishment of an efficient in vitro regeneration system of the H. aromaticum. The induction of adventitious buds was tested with various combinations and concentrations of 25 different phytohormones by using leaves, stem segments, and hypocotyls as explants. We found that when leaf explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA, 1 mg·L-1 6-BA, and 0.2 mg·L-1 TDZ for 20 days, the induction of callus was 100% and the induction rate of adventitious buds was 62.10%. The newly-formed adventitious buds were then cultured on 1/2MS medium for 16 days and the rooting rate reached 63.33%. After culturing for an additional 14 days, floral buds initiated and eventually flowering with a rate of 93.33%. In addition, we also found that the regeneration of H. aromaticum was affected by the nature of explants, the types and concentrations of phytohormones. Whereas 2,4-D is incapable of inducing adventitious buds, the combination of appropriate concentrations of 6-BA and TDZ effectively promotes the formation of adventitious buds of H. aromaticum. This study has established an in vitro regeneration system of H. aromaticum, which is a key perquisite for the subsequent establishment of its genetic transformation system. Moreover, this method will also be an important reference for studies on the floral development patterns in Compositae.

SPECIAL TOPICS
Intracellular Trafficking in Pattern Recognition Receptor-triggered Plant Immunity
Yaning Cui, Hongping Qian, Yanxia Zhao, Xiaojuan Li
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  329-339.  doi:10.11983/CBB19139
Abstract ( 340 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2205KB) ( 257 )   Save
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Plants initially sense microbes via perception of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the cell surface. This recognition is referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). In order to ensure their physiological and cellular functions, PRRs must be properly conveyed from their site of synthesis, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum, to their final destination, the plasma membrane (PM), through the secretory pathway. PRRs also rely on recycling and/or degradation, two processes that are initiated by endocytosis. Intracellular trafficking serves to terminate signaling through degradation, sustains signaling through recycling, or relays signaling inside the cell through the formation of signaling endosomes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of plant PRRs and their ligands, illustrating that intracellular trafficking plays an important role in plant immunity.

Advances in Transcription Factors Regulating Plant Terpenoids Biosynthesis
Yanmei Dong, Wenying Zhang, Zhengyi Ling, Jingrui Li, Hongtong Bai, Hui Li, Lei Shi
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  340-350.  doi:10.11983/CBB19186
Abstract ( 243 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1375KB) ( 270 )   Save
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Terpenoids are the most abundant structural and quantitative compounds in plant secondary metabolites, and they play an important role in the interaction of plants with the external environment. Transcription factors have the function of regulating the expression level of genes in the secondary metabolic pathway and regulating the production of secondary metabolites. In the last decades, there are six major transcription factor families involved in the terpenoids biosynthesis (AP2/ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY and bZIP). In this study, we reviewed the structure characteristics, regulatory mode, and research advances of several important transcription factor families in the plant terpenoids biosynthesis, and hope to further enrich the regulatory network of terpenoids synthesis, and provide a reference for molecular breeding, high-quality cultivation and biological control in relevant to terpenoid biosynthesis.

Transcriptional Regulatory Network of Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Plants
Yu Zhang, Mingjie Zhao, Wei Zhang
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  351-368.  doi:10.11983/CBB19135
Abstract ( 557 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1135KB) ( 616 )   Save
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Plant secondary cell walls (SCWs) contain cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which endow the cell walls with mechanical strength and hydrophobicity. This characteristic is very important for plant upright growth, water and nutrient transport, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we summarize the transcription factors regulating SCW biosynthesis and their regulatory mechanisms, including NAC transcription factors functioning as first-layer master switch, the AtMYB46/AtMYB83 and their downstream regulators serving as secondary-layer master switch, as well as the other transcription factors involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of the SCW. The future research contents and methods are also prospected in order to provide reference for further research on the transcriptional regulatory network of SCW biosynthesis.

Thoughts and Applications of Chemical Biology in Phytohormonal Research
Jiahui Xu, Yujia Dai, Xiaofeng Luo, Kai Shu, Weiming Tan
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  369-381.  doi:10.11983/CBB19150
Abstract ( 647 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (926KB) ( 431 )   Save
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Phytohormones are important regulatory substances for plant growth, directly or indirectly functioning in various developmental stages, from seed germination to maturity, as well as numerous biotic/abiotic stresses response. With the continuous improvement of small molecular compounds used to explore the molecular mechanisms of physiology and metabolism, chemical biology, a new frontier interdisciplinary discipline between plant biology and chemistry, was coined, and the important progresses have been achieved in a short time in the past several years. It has been revealed that the ideas and methods of chemical biology play an irreplaceable role in the research of plant hormones, especially in the area of plant signal transduction. This review summarizes the published small molecular analogs of major plant hormones, and outlines the mechanisms of how these small molecular analogs function in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic/abiotic stresses. Finally, the potential applications of these analogs in agricultural practice and future research directions were discussed.

Research Progress on Genetics and Breeding of Rice Roots
Yilan Zhang, Xue Lin, Yi Wu, Mengjia Li, Shengjie Zhang, Mei Lu, Yuchun Rao, Yuexing Wang
Chin Bull Bot. 2020, 55(3):  382-393.  doi:10.11983/CBB20021
Abstract ( 174 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2977KB) ( 105 )   Save
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As an important part of rice (Oryza sativa), the root system plays multiple roles in rice growth, including plant fixation, water and nutrients acquisition, amino acid and hormone biosynthesis. Root morphological structure and physiological function are closely related to rice yield and quality, and resistance. So far, many QTLs and genes regulating rice root system have been identified through genetic and biochemical approaches. In this paper, we summarized current progress on the study of rice root system-related QTLs and genes and the future research direction, so as to provide a reference for further screening and cloning root related genes and improving the model of ideal plant architecture of rice.

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