植物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (5): 652-661.doi: 10.11983/CBB19089

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小麦根系特征对干旱胁迫的响应

苗青霞1,2,3,方燕1,2,*(),陈应龙1,2,4,*()   

  1. 1. 西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
    2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所, 杨凌 712100
    3. 西北农林科技大学林学院, 杨凌 712100
    4. 西澳大学农业研究所, 农业与环境学院, 珀斯 6009
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-14 接受日期:2019-07-26 出版日期:2019-09-01 发布日期:2020-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 方燕,陈应龙 E-mail:fangyan@nwafu.edu.cn;yinglong.chen@uwa.edu.au
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31471946);国家自然科学基金(No.41807516);中科院百人计划(No.A315021449);中国博士后科学基金(No.2018M631199);中国博士后科学基金(No.2018M643750);陕西省博士后基金(No.2018BSHEDZZ142)

Studies in the Responses of Wheat Root Traits to Drought Stress

Miao Qingxia1,2,3,Fang Yan1,2,*(),Chen Yinglong1,2,4,*()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China;
    2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China
    3. College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China;
    4. School of Agriculture and Environment, The UWA Institute of Agriculture, the University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
  • Received:2019-05-14 Accepted:2019-07-26 Online:2019-09-01 Published:2020-03-10
  • Contact: Fang Yan,Chen Yinglong E-mail:fangyan@nwafu.edu.cn;yinglong.chen@uwa.edu.au

摘要:

干旱胁迫时, 小麦(Triticum aestivum)根系率先产生应激响应, 同时向地上部发出信号, 诱导地上部发生生理反应, 从而提高植株抗旱能力。根系构型包括平面几何性状和立体几何结构(即拓扑构型), 具有遗传稳定性和可塑性。干旱胁迫影响根系理化特性, 如根源化学信号、根系细胞酶类和根系渗透作用的响应。根系通过调整其解剖学结构和水分吸收动力等来适应干旱胁迫。该文从根系构型、理化特性和解剖学结构3个方面, 系统阐述了小麦根系特征对干旱胁迫的响应, 并探讨了其与干旱胁迫的关系和当前研究中存在的问题, 以期为相关研究提供参考。

关键词: 小麦, 根系构型, 根系理化特性, 根系解剖学特征

Abstract:

Drought stress induces the response of wheat roots, which simultaneously send signals to the aboveground parts stimulating physiological reactions in the aboveground parts, and thus improving drought tolerance of plants. Root architecture traits include morphological traits and three-dimensional geometric structures (i.e, topological structures). The root system architecture not only has genetic stability, but also shows plasticity. The root physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress primarily involve in induced production and changes of root-sourced chemical signals, root cell enzymes, and root osmosis. Under drought stress, plants also alter root anatomical traits and water-uptake kinetics. In this paper, current advances in the studies on root responses to drought stress of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were reviewed with a focus on root system architecture traits, root physiological properties and root anatomical characteristics. The relationship between wheat root properties and drought stress, and the current research constrains were discussed. This review would provide a guidance for future studies on wheat root traits in response to drought stress.

Key words: wheat, root architecture traits, root physiological-biochemical traits, root anatomical traits

表1

根系构型对干旱胁迫的响应"

根系构型指标 干旱胁迫下的响应 原因 参考文献
二维
根长 轻度干旱下增加, 重度干旱下减少 轻度干旱下根系伸长利用深层水, 重度干旱下根系生长受到抑制 Barraclough et al., 1989; Siopongco et al., 2005
根数 减少 受到干旱胁迫抑制 马富举等, 2012; Vandoorne et al., 2012
根系表面积 减少 受到干旱胁迫抑制 马富举等, 2012; Vandoorne et al., 2012
根系生物量 轻度干旱下增加, 重度干旱下减少 轻度干旱下增加有利于维持根系吸水能力 Kano et al., 2011; 马富举等, 2012
根长密度 表层减少, 深层增加 增加对深层储蓄水的利用 Barraclough et al., 1989; Uga et al., 2011; Wasson et al., 2012; Becker et al., 2016; Fang et al., 2017
根毛 增加 增加根系与土壤接触面积, 减少水分吸收阻力 Passioura, 1991; Segal et al., 2008; White and Kirkegaard, 2010
三维
根系拓扑构型 由叉状向鱼尾形发展 鱼尾形结构根系下扎较深, 分支结构可有效利用水分 谈峰等, 2011; 单立山等, 2012

图1

根系拓扑结构示意图"

图2

小麦根系解剖结构及其水分运输途径示意图(Wasson et al., 2012)"

图3

根系构型影响因子及其相互关系"

表2

干旱胁迫下根源化学信号的响应"

根源化学信号 干旱胁迫下响应 参考文献
脱落酸 干旱条件下增加, 传递根源信号和控制气孔导度, 减弱蒸腾作用 Tardieu et al., 1992; Saradadevi et al., 2015; 马超等, 2017; 谢静静等, 2018
生长素 干旱条件下降低, IAA/ CTK降低, 与脱落酸呈拮抗作用 Eckert and Kaldenh-
off, 2000; Xu et al., 2013; Han et al., 2015
细胞分裂素(玉米素, 玉
米素核苷)
干旱条件下降低, 与生长素呈拮抗作用 Dodd, 2003; Kudoyarova et al., 2007; Han et al., 2015
木质部pH值 干旱条件下增加, 与脱落酸共同作用引起气孔关闭 Gollan et al., 1992
钙离子 干旱胁迫下脱落酸诱导气孔关闭过程中的第二信使 Parcy and Giraudat, 1997; Snedden and Fromm, 2001; Bothwell and Ng, 2005; Case et al., 2007
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