The plasma membrane (PM) is a crucial barrier between the protoplast and environment. In addition to maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and plant nutrient status, the PM perceives and responds to various environmental stress. In recent years, plant PM proteomic investigations provide valuable information for insights into the molecular mechanisms of the plant in response to different biotic and abiotic stimuli. Plant PM proteomics have revealed diverse PM protein expression patterns in 10 plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa in response to biotic stress (e.g., Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae infection) and abiotic stress (e.g., cold, salt, flooding, osmosis, high pH, Fe, nitrogen, abscisic acid, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharide). Studies have revealed the important role of the plant plasma membrane in response to stress by integrative analysis of plant PM proteomic information from recent publications, including regulation of intracellular and extracellular signal transmission; material exchange and transport by transporter, channel protein and vesicle transport-related proteins; and perception and transmission of the stress signal by signal transduction pathways, such as membrane-associated G protein, Ca2+ signaling transduction, the phosphoinositide signaling pathway, the brassinosteroid signal pathway and reversible phosphorylation of proteins, adapting the plant to stress. The research provides new clues at the protein level for understanding the molecular regulation mechanism of the PM stress response.