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  • Hosted by:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsored by:Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Society of China
    Co-hosted by:Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Institute of Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources, Yunnan AgriculturalAcademy
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University
    State Key Laboratory of Crops Biology, Shandong Agricultural University

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    Medicinal Plant

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    Chinese Scientists Sequenced the Genome and Dissected the Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids Pathway of Macleaya cordata
    Zhang Hongyan, Luo Jie
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 289-292.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB18023
    Abstract1260)   HTML24)    PDF (1089KB)(584)       Save

    Macleaya cordata is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant species from the Papaveraceae family and is considered a safe resource of antimicrobial feed additive for livestock for its production of antimicrobial-active constituents such as sanguinarine (SAN) and chelerythrine (CHE). Chinese scientists reported the de novo whole-genome sequencing of M. cordata, the first to be sequenced from the Papaveraceae family. They then used the tissue-specific transcriptome and metabolic profiling data to identify 16 candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of SAN and CHE. Homologous cloning and substrate-feeding experiments were then applied to verify the biochemical functions of the 14 candidates. This research set up the foundation for further improvement of the biosynthesis, regulation and biosynthetic chemistry of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and also provides a powerful tool for the dissection of metabolic pathway(s) in other species from the Papaveraceae family.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    The Research Progress of the Correlation Between Growth Development and Dynamic Accumulation of the Effective Components in Medicinal Plants
    Yanqun Li, Hong Wu
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 293-304.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB18081
    Accepted: 07 May 2018

    Abstract1314)      PDF (470KB)(586)       Save
    The active ingredients of medicinal plants are the material basis of their clinical curative effects. They are also important indicators for evaluating the quality of medicinal materials. The synthesis and distribution of these active components show specific patterns depending on the genus, organ, tissue and growth period of the medicinal plant. Elucidating the dynamic accumulation and formation mechanisms of the active components in medicinal plants bears guiding significance for the quality control of medicinal materials and the improvement of clinical curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, we have summarized recent progresses regarding how different growth stages affect the synthesis and accumulation of effective components in different parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed) of medicinal plants. We also provide an outlook on the research methods applied for the synthesis and accumulation mechanisms of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. This study provides a theoretical basis for the regulation of secondary substance synthesis in production practices, the rational utilization of medicinal plants and the quality improvement of Chinese medicinal herbs.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
      
    Genetic Relationship of Physalis Plants Revealed by Simple Sequence Repeat Markers
    Zhu Yujia, Jiao Kaili, Luo Xiujun, Feng Shangguo, Wang Huizhong
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 305-312.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB18027
    Abstract1407)   HTML16)    PDF (8276KB)(667)       Save

    In recent years, Physalis plants have attracted increasing attention worldwide due to their high nutritional value, edible fruit, and potential medicinal value. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess genetic relationships with 22 samples of four Physalis species mainly distributed in China. Twenty SSR primer pairs produced 118 loci, 90.7% (107) of which showed polymorphism. The average interspecies similarity coefficient was 0.501, which indicates a degree of genetic relationship among Physalis species. The results of UPGMA dendrography and PCoA plotting were similar, and all Physalis samples were grouped into two clusters. All P. alkekengi var. francheti samples, distant from any other Physalis species, constituted a separate cluster, which confirmed findings of previous studies. This study also indicated that SSR markers are rich in genetic information and could be used to assess the genetic diversity of Physalis species which provides rich useful information for protecting the Physalis germplasm resource and an important foundation for molecular assisted-breeding programs with Physalis.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Cynomorium songaricum by ITS Sequence
    Ren Mengyun, Du Leshan, Chen Yanjun, Zhang Dun, Shen Qi, Guan Xiao, Zhang Yindong
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 313-321.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17193
    Abstract934)   HTML17)    PDF (1088KB)(1856)       Save

    To elucidate the genetic structure and genetic diversity of Cynomorium songaricum, modern molecular biology techniques at the DNA level were used to study the genetic structure of 188 C. songaricum individuals from 18 wild populations in the Hexi Corridor Region of Gansu and Qinghai. After alignment, all amplified sequence lengths were 687 bp. The 687 bp ITS sequence detected 7 mutation sites in 188 individuals, defining 9 haplotypes. Processing these 9 haplotype sequences led to a data matrix for calculating the haplotype diversity (Hd=0.294 20) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.000 49). In the haplotype network map, H1 is located in the center and distributed in all populations, and is the ancient and core haplotype. AMOVA revealed that the variation in C. songaricum mainly occurs in populations. According to the genetic differentiation coefficient and Mantel test of ITS sequences, we found no significant relation between genetic and geographic distances, so the current distribution of C. songaricum represents the fragmentation product in recent time. Detection of historical expansion of populations showed that the Tajima’s D test rejected a neutral mutation evolution, and the population expansion history or gene locus is under negative selection pressure, so the null hypothesis cannot be ruled out. Our study provides molecular evidence for the classification system, identification and protection measures of C. songaricum.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    Effect of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Water Use and Yield of Isatis indigotica
    Wang Yucai, Zhang Hengjia, Deng Haoliang, Wang Shijie, Ba Yuchun
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 322-333.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17030
    Abstract926)   HTML7)    PDF (2473KB)(573)       Save

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effect of mulched drip irrigation under water deficit regulation on the physiological indexes, yield and water use in the Hexi region, which would provide theoretical guidance for efficient high efficiency water saving. We used experiments with Isatis indigotica in different amounts of irrigation and growth stages in the Yimin Irrigation District of Gansu Province in 2016. With seedling stage and fleshy root maturity stage under normal water conditions, we measured the physiological indexes yield and water use under mild, moderate and severe water deficit treatments in the vegetative and fleshy root growth stages. The leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf area index, plant height and root length of I. indigotica were significantly reduced by water deficit regulation in the vegetative and fleshy root growth stages, with greater decrease with aggravated water deficit degree, but the difference with mild water deficit treatments was not significant. The yield and water use efficiency of I. indigotica root with mild water deficit treatment were 8 239.56 kg∙hm-2 and 24.11 kg∙hm-2·mm-1, respectively. With other water deficit treatments reduced, there were significant differences between the control group (P<0.05), severe water deficit treatment being the lowest. Thus, optimal water regulation is mild water-deficit treatment of vegetative and fleshy root growth stages to reduce water consumption, and improving the efficiency of water use does not reduce its production.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
      
    Induction and Plant Regeneration of Protocorm-like Bodies in Dioscorea opposita
    Li Ruixue, Li Jiqiang, Pu Tengfei, Zhang Xiaoli, Zhao Xiting, Li Junhua, Li Mingjun
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 334-340.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17207
    Abstract1178)   HTML9)    PDF (5580KB)(424)       Save

    To improve the speed of in vitro propagation of Dioscorea opposita and shorten the breeding cycle, we used nodal segments with axillary buds of D. opposita cv. ‘Tiegun’ as the starting material. The optimal conditions for protocorm-like body (PLB) induction, proliferation, differentiation and plantlet regeneration were analyzed. The optimal culture medium for PLB induction was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 TDZ+30 g·L-1 sucrose, the optimal culture medium for PLB proliferation was MS+9 mg·L-1 6-BA+30 g·L-1 sucrose, and the optimal culture medium for PLB differentiation was MS+2 mg·L-1 KT+0.02 mg·L-1 NAA+30 g·L-1 sucrose. In culture medium containing 1/4MS+0.05 mg·L-1 NAA+1.0 mg·L-1 PP333+15 g·L-1 sucrose, the rooting rate of regenerated plantlets from PLBs was 80%, and the survival rate of regenerated plantlets was up to 85% after being sown in soil. The induction of protocorm like bodies and the establishment of plant regeneration system provide a new way for rapid propagation of D. opposita seedlings.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    Ultrasound-microwave-assisted Extraction of Alkaloids from Epimedium brevicornum and Their Inhibitory Effect on HeLa Cells
    Li Lu, An Yejuan, Qiao Chunlei, Yang Xiaohua, Zhang Huafeng, Xue Mengying
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 341-352.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17103
    Abstract805)   HTML9)    PDF (3153KB)(774)       Save

    A protocol of ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction was developed to isolate alkaloids from the medicinal plant Epimedium brevicornum, and the extraction mechanism is discussed. The chemical composition of the alkaloid extract was analyzed. The inhibitory effect of E. brevicornum alkaloids on human cervical cancer HeLa cells was investigated. The optimal condition for ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction of E. brevicornum alkaloids was achieved by using an orthogonal test: steeped time, 40 min; ultrasound-microwave time, 18 min; microwave power, 250 J∙s-1; liquid-to-solid ratio, 30 mL∙g-1; and ethanol concentration, 70%. Extraction yield of alkaloids by ultrasound- microwave-assisted extraction reached 16.146 mg∙g-1, which was significantly higher than that by ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and heating extraction. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the synergism between the ultrasound and microwave resulted in many interstices on the surface of leaf samples of E. brevicornum. Laser diffraction particle sizing analysis revealed that the amount of small and medium particles of leaf samples increased and that of large particles decreased after ultrasound-microwave-assisted extraction. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the alkaloid extract contained magnoflorine, and berberine was not detectable. E. brevicornum alkaloids exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibitory activity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The present research may be helpful for the exploitation and utilization of Epimedium resources.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    A Tentative Method for Monitoring the Dynamic Features of Transpiration Regulation in Ferula krylovii Leaves
    Zhang Ping, Hao Xiuying, Yu Ruifeng, Zhou Hongmei, Zhu Jianjun
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 353-363.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17051
    Abstract900)   HTML12)    PDF (2964KB)(314)       Save

    The transpirational dynamics and regulation features in leaves of Ferula krylovii grown in a desert area of Xinjiang, China were monitored, recorded and analysed systematically with a high-sensitivity humidity sensor combined with a specific leaf chamber and other types of sensors. The results were compared with those from other methods such as photosynthetic meters or weighing. Parameters associated with fast regulation (within 1-2 min) and diurnal variations in transpiration rate were clearly monitored and recorded. The parameters obtained could be used to analyse the correlations between transpiration and the effect of changes in environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity to uncover more details on the transpirational dynamics and regulation features of a plant, details that other methods are unable to provide. Because larger samples could be measured with this method, the disadvantages of other methods could be excluded, such as errors due to the selection of the local sampling site, systematic errors due to smaller gas samples, and possible mechanical stress due to the clamp of the leaf chamber. This method, combined with other types of sensors, could yield parameters that cover more extensively the transpirational water consumption and regulation of plants under varied environmental conditions and provide a more detailed dynamic perspective of plants in their adaptation to environments, with the possibility of remote, continuous monitoring.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    3-D In-situ Non-destructive Structural Characterization of Ferula sinkiangensis
    Liu Huiqiang, Sulaiman·Kaisa, Sun Yun, Pang Yuan, Fan Xiaoxi, Xie Ru, Liu Chao, Duan Yingni, Ma Yan
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 364-371.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17104
    Abstract1055)   HTML7)    PDF (7209KB)(434)       Save

    Synchrotron-based X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography is being used for achieving nondestructive and 3-D characterization due to the high contrast imaging of low Z materials (consisting of C, H, O, N elements). In this paper, we present a new method to combine the high resolution synchrotron-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging technology and phase retrieval algorithm for analyzing and evaluating the 3D inner micro-structures and nondestructive characteristic structures of Ferula sinkiangensis. The method successfully revealed the 3-D micro-structures and characteristics of F. sinkiangensis with high-density resolution, demonstrating that the method is an intuitive and reliable tool of 3D visualization, which has good potential for characterizing and identifying Chinese medicine materials.

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    The Paper Mulberry: a Novel Model System for Woody Plant Research
    Peng Xianjun, Shen Shihua
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 372-381.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB17106
    Abstract2562)   HTML33)    PDF (965KB)(2221)       Save

    As a perennial tree, the paper mulberry belongs to the genus Broussonetia in the family Moraceae. It is a multifunctional tree with important economic values. Its leaves are rich in protein. Its bark fiber is excellent raw material for paper making. Its roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds have been used as Chinese traditional medicine. This species has an extensive distribution and strong adaptive traits. It is dioecious, and has sexual and asexual reproduction. It is also rich in genetic diversity and easily transformed. It displays diverse phenotypes and a compact genome, and it produces a great number of seeds per plant. Therefore, as a model plant, the paper mulberry could be used for exploring the mechanism of fibre and lignin synthesis, nitrogenous and flavonoid metabolism, plant resistance, adaptive evolution at different environmental conditions, heterophylly formation and other key issues in botanical research. This paper lists the key features of paper mulberry as a model material, briefly introduces the research progress on this species, and suggests future research directions.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
      
    Review of Current Research and Utilization Status of Apocynum venetum Germplasm in China
    Xu Zongchang, Zhou Jinhui, Zhang Chengsheng, Li Yiqiang
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    2018, 53 (3): 382-390.   DOI: 10.11983/CBB18028
    Abstract1213)   HTML21)    PDF (960KB)(1437)       Save

    Apocynum venetum is one of the world’s rare wild plants. Its leaves can be used as medicine and for tea. In this review, the discovery, distribution and botanical classification of Apocynum venetum were concisely introduced. The A. venetum germplasm diversity, salt resistance, exploitation and utilization are discussed in detail to provide the theoretical basis and consultation for the salt tolerance mechanism of A. venetum, the protection of A. venetum germplasm and targeted plant breeding. We also appeal to academic peers to take efforts to protect the A. venetum germplasm.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)