Recent Advances in Metabolic Products of Flavonoids in Nelumbo
Shanshan Li, Qian Wu, Ruyu Yuan, Shuai Shao, Huijin Zhang, Liangsheng Wang
Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2014, 49(6):
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Nelumbo plants contain edible and pharmaceutical products; nelumbinis folium, rhizomatis nodus, semen, plumula, receptaculum, and stamen are all used in medicine. The efficacy of the medicine varies greatly between different parts. In total, 61 flavonoids, including 8 anthocyanins, 2 flavonols, 29 flavonol glycosides, 1 flavone, 16 flavone glycosides (13 C-glycosyl flavones) and 5 flavanols, have been identified in various lotus tissues. These flavonoid compounds are widely used in the health-food and medicine industries. This paper summarizes the recent progress in the detection and purification, composition, content and pharmacological studies of flavonoids in different Nelumbo tissues, comprising lotus leaves, petals, stamens, pistils, tori, leaf veins, leaf stalk, flower stalk, seed pods, seed coats, kernels, plumules and rhizome. Petals and stamens possess plentiful quercetin and kaempferol glycosides; quercetin glycosides are dominant components in other tissues except for plumules. Abundant C-glycosyl flavones were identified in plumules. In addition, the total content of flavonoids was significantly high in leaves. HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MSn are becoming the main detection methods because of their high sensitivity and accuracy. The most effective method for separating and purifying the single compound is high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Because of the wide range of biological activities of Nelumbo tissues, including antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-HIV, anti-atherothrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties, promoting the comprehensive study and development of the nutritional and pharmacodynamic material in each tissue is important.