植物学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 107-119.DOI: 10.11983/CBB15059

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花青素代谢途径与植物颜色变异

祝志欣1,2, 鲁迎青1,*()   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2海南大学园艺园林学院, 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-26 接受日期:2015-07-17 出版日期:2016-01-01 发布日期:2016-02-01
  • 通讯作者: 鲁迎青
  • 作者简介:

    ? 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(No.91331116, No.31070263)

Plant Color Mutants and the Anthocyanin Pathway

Zhixin Zhu1,2, Yingqing Lu1*   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2015-03-26 Accepted:2015-07-17 Online:2016-01-01 Published:2016-02-01
  • Contact: Lu Yingqing
  • About author:

    ? These authors contributed equally to this paper

摘要:

花青素是种子植物呈色的重要色素, 由一系列结构基因编码的酶(CHS、CHI、F3H、F3'H、F3'5'H、DFR、ANS和3GT)催化而成, 随后经过各种修饰被转运至液泡等部位储存。各类器官中差异表达的MYB、bHLH和WDR三种调控因子通过形成MBW复合体直接正调控以上结构基因的表达。这个过程涉及的基因变异常会导致植物的各种颜色变异。在生活中人们广泛利用这些变异品种, 取其丰富色味。造成颜色变异的具体分子机制在很多情况下还不清楚, 但日益积累的个例研究为其中的规律性提供了基础数据。该文概述了花青素的合成、转运过程及其转录调控机制, 探讨了研究颜色变异品种的常用思路及方法。在总结近年工作的基础上, 对生活中常见蔬菜、水果和花卉的颜色变异品种的分子机制进行了综述。

Abstract:

Anthocyanins are widely synthesized in seed plants to provide coloration, the end-product of a series of enzymes of the anthocyanin pathway (including CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, ANS and 3GT), which is then modified by various enzymes and transported to the vacuole for storage. The genes encoding these enzymes are positively regulated by three kinds of transcription factors, including MYB, bHLH and WDR, with variable expression in organs to form the MBW complex. Genetic mutations related to the pathway, either in structural or regulatory genes, often cause unique color varieties that are valued. Although the molecular basis remains unknown for many existing mutants, accumulating cases start to show certain regularity. This review summarizes progress made in the anthocyanin pathway including its regulation and transportation and comments on relevant strategies for understanding the genetic basis of a color mutant. The known molecular mechanisms of commonly seen color mutants are also described.