Chin Bull Bot ›› 2017, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 179-187.doi: 10.11983/CBB16041

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evolutionary Pattern of the GBSS Gene Family in Plants

Wang Qian, Sun Wenjing, Bao Ying*()   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China
  • Received:2016-03-08 Accepted:2016-08-08 Online:2017-04-05 Published:2017-03-01
  • Contact: Bao Ying
  • About author:# Co-first authors


We analyzed the evolutionary pattern of the granule-bound starch-synthase genes (GBSS) in 20 land plants and 2 algae from whole-genome data with bioinformatics methods. A total of 42 genes were detected and their sequence structures were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GBSS gene family had an ancient origin and complex evolutionary history. It probably appeared in the early evolutionary stage of green plants, then mostly experienced lineage-specific expansion and copy loss during evolution, and finally was fixed in different plant taxa via functional divergence.

Key words: genome, phylogeny, gene duplication,, copy loss, functional, divergence

Figure 1

The maximum likelihood tree of the granule-bound starch synthase gene family based on amino acid sequences of 22 plant speciesNumbers above the branches indicate bootstrap values above 50%. Numbers following species names indicate different gene loci as listed in Table 1."

Figure 2

Maximum likelihood tree of 4 species based on amino acid homologous sequences of the starch synthase genesNumbers above the branches indicate bootstrap values above 50%. Two genes of Musa acuminata indicated by arrow should be SSII rather than GBSS."

Figure 3

Synteny alignment of the chromosome regions with 4 GBSS homologous genes in Glycine max(A) The chromosome region includes locus GM10G31540; (B) The chromosome region includes locus GM20G36040; (C) The chromosome region includes locus GM16G02110; (D) The chromosome region includes locus GM07G05580. Arrows indicate the direction of genes’ transcription. Homologous genes are shown in same colors. Four GBSS genes are in the frame."

[1] 包颖, 杜家潇, 景翔, 徐思 (2015). 药用野生稻叶中淀粉合成酶基因家族的序列分化和特异表达. 植物学报50, 683-690.
[2] Ahuja G, Jaiswal S, Hucl P, Chibbar RN (2014). Wheat genome specific granule-bound starch synthase I differentially influence grain starch synthesis.Carbohydr Polym 114, 87-94.
[3] Alison MS (2012). Starch in the Arabidopsis plant.Starch 64, 421-434.
[4] Ball S, Colleoni C, Cenci U, Raj JN, Tirtiaux C (2011). The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis.J Exp Bot 62, 1775-1801.
[5] Baranov Iu O, Slishchuk HI, Volkova NE, SyvolapIu M (2014). Bioinformatic analysis of maize granule-bound starch synthase gene.Tsitol Genet 48, 18-23.
[6] Criscuolo A (2011). morePhyML: improving the phylogenetic tree space exploration with PhyML 3.Mol Phylogenet Evol 61, 944-948.
[7] Deschamps P, Moreau H, Worden AZ, Dauvillee D, Ball SG (2008). Early gene duplication within chloroplastida and its correspondence with relocation of starch metabolism to chloroplasts.Genetics 178, 2373-2387.
[8] Dian W, Jiang H, Chen Q, Liu F, Wu P (2003). Cloning and characterization of the granule-bound starch synthase II gene in rice: gene expression is regulated by the nitrogen level, sugar and circadian rhythm.Planta 218, 261-268.
[9] Fasahat P, Rahman S, Ratnam W (2014). Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains.J Genet 93, 279-292.
[10] Fulton DC, Edwards A, Pilling E, Robinson HL, Fahy B, Seale R, Kato L, Donald AM, Geigenberger P, Martin C, Smith AM (2002). Role of granule-bound starch synthase in determination of amylopectin structure and starch granule morphology in potato.J Biol Chem 277, 10834-10841.
[11] Guzman C, Alvarez JB (2015). Wheat waxy proteins: polymorphism, molecular characterization and effects on starch properties.Theor Appl Genet 9, 1049-1060.
[12] Hirose T, Hashida Y, Aoki N, Okamura M, Yonekura M, Ohto C, Terao T, Ohsugi R (2014). Analysis of gene- disruption mutants of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene in rice,OsSPS1, shows the importance of sucrose synthesis in pollen germination. Plant Sci 225, 102-106.
[13] Hoai TT, Matsusaka H, Toyosawa Y, Suu TD, Satoh H, Kumamaru T (2014). Influence of single-nucleotide poly- morphisms in the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase I on amylose content in Vietnamese rice cultivars.Breed Sci 64, 142-148.
[14] Jeon JS, Ryoo N, Hahn TR, Walia H, Nakamura Y (2010). Starch biosynthesis in cereal endosperm.Plant Physiol Biochem 48, 383-392.
[15] Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.Bioinformatics 23, 2947-2948.
[16] Miao H, Sun P, Liu W, Xu B, Jin Z (2014). Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.PLoS One 9, e88077.
[17] Ohdan T, Francisco PB, Sawada TJ, Hirose T, Terao T, Satoh H, Nakamura Y (2005). Expression profiling of genes involved in starch synthesis in sink and source organs of rice.J Exp Bot 56, 3229-3244.
[18] Orzechowski S (2008). Starch metabolism in leaves.Acta Biochim Pol 55, 435-445.
[19] Patron NJ, Smith AM, Fahy BF, Hylton CM, Naldrett MJ, Rossnagel BG, Denyer K (2002). The altered pattern of amylose accumulation in the endosperm of low-amylose barley cultivars is attributable to a single mutant allele of granule-bound starch synthase I with a deletion in the 5'-non-coding region.Plant Physiol 130, 190-198.
[20] Tsai CY (1974). The function of the waxy locus in starch synthesis in maize endosperm.Biochem Genet 11, 83-96.
[21] Vrinten PL, Nakamura T (2000). Wheat granule-bound starch synthase I and II are encoded by separate genes that are expressed in different tissues.Plant Physiol 122, 255-264.
[22] Waterhouse AM, Procter JB, Martin DM, Clamp M, Barton GJ (2009). Jalview Version 2—a multiple sequence alignment editor and analysis workbench.Bioinformatics 25, 1189-1191.
[23] Yan HB, Pan XX, Jiang HW, Wu GJ (2009). Comparison of the starch synthesis genes between maize and rice: copies, chromosome location and expression divergence.Theor Appl Genet 119, 815-825.
[24] Zhu L, Gu M, Meng X, Cheung SC, Yu H, Huang J, Sun Y, Shi Y, Liu Q (2012). High-amylose rice improves indices of animal health in normal and diabetic rats.Plant Biotechnol J 10, 353-362.
[1] QIN Hao,ZHANG Yin-Bo,DONG Gang,ZHANG Feng. Altitudinal patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of forest communities in Mount Guandi, Shanxi, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 762-773.
[2] TANG Li-Li,ZHANG Mei,ZHAO Xiang-Lin,KANG Mu-Yi,LIU Hong-Yan,GAO Xian-Ming,YANG Tong,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. Species distribution and community assembly rules of Juglans mandshurica in North China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 753-761.
[3] Bin Cao, Guojie Li, Ruilin Zhao. Species diversity and geographic components of Russula from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(8): 854-866.
[4] MIAO Bai-Ling, LIANG Cun-Zhu, SHI Ya-Bo, LIANG Mao-Wei, LIU Zhong-Ling. Temporal changes in precipitation altered aboveground biomass in a typical steppe in Nei Mongol, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(7): 557-565.
[5] FU Yi-Wen, TIAN Da-Shuan, WANG Jin-Song, NIU Shu-Li, ZHAO Ken-Tian. Patterns and affecting factors of nitrogen use efficiency of plant leaves and roots in Nei Mongol and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau grasslands [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(7): 566-575.
[6] ZHAO Dan-Dan, MA Hong-Yuan, LI Yang, WEI Ji-Ping, WANG Zhi-Chun. Effects of water and nutrient additions on functional traits and aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(6): 501-511.
[7] Gu Hanjiao, Zhang Cancan, Wang Jinsong, Shi Xuewen, Xia Ruixue, Liu Bin, Chen Fusheng, Bu Wensheng. Variation in basic morphological and functional traits of Chinese bamboo [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 585-594.
[8] Weng Zhuoxian, Huang Jiaqiong, Zhang Shihao, Yu Kaichun, Zhong Fusheng, Huang Xunhe, Zhang Bin. Genetic diversity and population structure of black-bone chickens in China revealed by mitochondrial COI gene sequences [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 667-676.
[9] Zhao Yuemei, Yang Zhenyan, Zhao Yongping, Li Xiaoling, Zhao Zhixin, Zhao Guifang. Chloroplast Genome Structural Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships of Oleaceae [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2019, 54(4): 441-454.
[10] Xie Lihong,Huang Qingyang,Cao Hongjie,Yang Fan,Wang Jifeng,Ni Hongwei. Leaf functional traits of Acer mono in Wudalianchi Volcano, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(3): 286-296.
[11] HAO Shu-Jun, LI Xiao-Yu, HOU Man-Man, ZHAO Xiu-Hai. Spatial variations of community functional traits at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(3): 208-216.
[12] CHENG Yi-Kang, ZHANG Hui, WANG Xu, LONG Wen-Xing, LI Chao, FANG Yan-Shan, FU Ming-Qi, ZHU Kong-Xin. Effects of functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity on the tropical cloud forest community assembly [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(3): 217-226.
[13] Zhang Xia,Jing Xiang,Zhou Guangcai,Bao Ying. Phylogeny and Tissue-specific Expression of the GBSS Genes in Oryza officinalis [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2019, 54(3): 343-349.
[14] Su Yuekai,Qiu Jingren,Zhang Han,Song Zhenqiao,Wang Jianhua. Recent Progress in Evolutionary Technology of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Plant Genome Editing [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2019, 54(3): 385-395.
[15] Tang Kang,Yang Ruolin. Origin and Evolution of Soybean Protein-coding Genes [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2019, 54(3): 316-327.
Full text



[1] Hu Shi-yi. Lipoid Bodies in Plant Tissues[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(04): 49 -51 .
[2] CHENG Hong-Yan. Introduction of State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(04): 78 .
[3] Liu Dong-zhuo and Li Lan. The Karyotype Analysis of Solanum pseudocapsicum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(03): 50 .
[4] WANG Bao-Shan;LI De-Quan;ZHAO Shi-Jie;MENG Qing-Wei and ZOU Qi. Effects of Iso-osmotic NaCl and KCl Stress on Growth and Gas Exchange of Sorghum Seedlings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 449 -453 .
[5] LI Yao-Dong WEI Yu-Ning XU Ben-Mei. Study on the ABA Content and SOD Activity in Ancient Lotus and Modern Lotus Seeds[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(05): 439 -442 .
[6] LI Zhong-Kui HU Hong-Jun LI Ye-Guang. Advances in Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship of Volvocales[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2002, 19(04): 419 -424 .
[7] WANG Ting SU Ying-Juan ZHU Jian-Ming HUANG Chao LI Xue-Yan. PCR_RFLP Analysis of rbc L Genes in Taxaceae and Related Taxa[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(06): 714 -721 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 51 .
[9] Dong Shu-ting, Hu Chang-hao, Yue Shou-song, Wang Qun-ying, Gao Rong-qi, Pan Zi-long. The Characteristics of Canopy Photosynthesis of Summer Corn (Zea mays) and its Relation with Canopy Structure and Ecological Conditions[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1992, 16(4): 372 -378 .