植物学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 644-657.DOI: 10.11983/CBB20029

• 专题论坛 • 上一篇    

芳香植物精油的抗菌性及在动物生产中的应用

郝渊鹏1,2,†, 李静一1,†, 杨瑞1,2, 李慧1, 白红彤1, 石雷1,*()   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所, 北方资源植物重点实验室/北京植物园, 北京 100093
    2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-24 接受日期:2020-07-21 出版日期:2020-09-01 发布日期:2020-09-03
  • 通讯作者: 石雷
  • 作者简介:E-mail: shilei_67@126.com

    共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA23080603)

Antimicrobial Activity of Aromatic Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Animal Production

Yuanpeng Hao1,2,†, Jingyi Li1,†, Rui Yang1,2, Hui Li1, Hongtong Bai1, Lei Shi1,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-02-24 Accepted:2020-07-21 Online:2020-09-01 Published:2020-09-03
  • Contact: Lei Shi
  • About author:

    These authors contributed equally to this paper

摘要:

芳香植物精油为具特征性气味的挥发性油状液体, 是从芳香植物中提取的一种重要次生代谢物质。芳香植物精油的抗菌活性由其化学成分和浓度决定, 其中酚类、含氧萜类和萜烯类在抗菌方面表现出较强的活性。芳香植物精油的抗菌机制主要涉及脂肪酸外膜的改变、细胞质膜的损坏、质子动力的消耗、代谢物及离子泄露。在畜牧业生产体系中, 抗生素的无序使用不仅可能引发“超级细菌”的产生, 其残留亦会造成畜产品不安全和环境污染。芳香植物精油作为一种天然植物抗菌剂, 毒性较低且无残留, 作为饲料添加剂可用于维持动物机体的健康, 有望成为重要的抗生素替代品。该文阐述了芳香植物精油的活性成分、抗菌作用机制及其在动物生产中的应用, 为抗菌机理研究和新技术开发利用提供了理论依据。

关键词: 芳香植物精油, 化学成分, 抗菌活性, 抗生素替代品, 动物生产

Abstract:

Essential oils (EOs), volatile oily liquid extracted from aromatic plants, are vital secondary metabolites with the characteristic odor. The antimicrobial activities are determined by chemical compositions and concentrations of EOs. Of these, phenols, oxygenous terpenoids and terpenes possess significant antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial mechanisms of EOs mainly involve in the alteration of fatty acids outer membrane, damaging of cytoplasmic membrane, depletion of proton-motive force and leakage of metabolites and ions. In the production systems of animal husbandry, misuse of antibiotics leads to the generation of “super bacteria”, and antibiotic residues cause the problems of animal by-products unsafety and environmental pollution. Aromatic EOs serve as natural antimicrobial agents with advantages of low toxicity and no residues, thus EOs can be used as feed additives to replace the antibiotics for animal health. This review article describes the active compounds and antimicrobial mechanisms of aromatic EOs as well as their applications in animal production, and emphasizes the application of new technologies in the research of antimicrobial mechanisms. This article will provide the theoretical basis for the application of aromatic EOs in the animal production.

Key words: aromatic plant essential oil, chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic alternatives, animal production