Chinese Bulletin of Botany ›› 2021, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (3): 372-387.DOI: 10.11983/CBB20166

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Triploid in Poaceae: Formation, Detection, and Utilization

Xu Yan1,2, Yanchun Zuo1, Honglin Wang1, Yang Li2,3, Yingzheng Li2, Jing Kou1, Qilin Tang1, Xiaokang Zhou2,*(), Zhouhe Du1,*()   

  1. 1Sericulture Research Institute/Animal Husbandry Research Center, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchong 637000, China
    2Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, China
    3School of Urban and Rural Planning and Construction, Mianyang Teachers’ College, Mianyang 621000, China
  • Received:2020-10-09 Accepted:2021-01-21 Online:2021-05-01 Published:2021-04-30
  • Contact: Xiaokang Zhou,Zhouhe Du


The formation pathway of triploid in Poaceae includes 2n gamete fusion, interploidy cross, polyspermy, and endosperm culture. The fusion of reduced male (n) and unreduced female gamete (2n) is the main method for forming natural triploids. Interploidy cross is the main method for synthesizing artificial triploids. The application of ploidy identification methods such as morphological observation, chromosome analysis, flow cytometry and molecular markers in gramineous triploids is introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of different methods are also discussed. At present, triploid has no direct application value in cereal crops, but it can be used as a genetic bridge to synthetize polyploid and aneuploid, as well as to transfer alien genes from wild species to cultivated species. Gramineous triploids (especially allotriploid) are widely cultivated for forage or biofuel production, suggesting that triploidy breeding may be directly performed in this type of grasses. We discuss the future prospect of research on gramineous triploid, e.g., polyploid- and apomixis-triploid breeding. Particularly, endosperm culture can synthesize triploids in one step, and polyspermy can achieve one-step fusion of three genetically different plant genomes, which should be paid attention to in the triploidy research. Due to rare occurrence of 2n gamete fusion and polyspermy, and frequent chromosomal variation in ploidy hybridization and endosperm culture, the development of high-throughput triploid identification technology will become the key for breakthrough in triploidy generation/breeding.

Key words: triploid, 2n gamete, interploidy cross, endosperm culture, polyspermy, breeding program