Chin Bull Bot ›› 2017, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 235-240.doi: 10.11983/CBB16099

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Advances in Auxin Regulation of Plant Stomatal Development

Yefei Shang, Ming Li, Bo Ding, Hao Niu, Zhenning Yang, Xiaoqiang Chen, Gaoyi Cao, Xiaodong Xie*   

  1. College of Agriculture, Resources and Environmental Sciences, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China
  • Received:2016-05-02 Accepted:2016-10-16 Online:2017-04-05 Published:2017-04-10
  • Contact: Xie Xiaodong E-mail:xiex@tjau.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract:

As pores surrounded by two guard cells on the surface of plants, stomata act as important pathways exchanging water and gas between plants and the external atmosphere. Stomata can also adapt to changes in the environment by affecting the photosynthesis, transpiration and subsequent biological processes in plants. Auxin, the first discovered plant hormone, regulates various developmental processes in plants. Recent studies revealed that auxin is involved in stomatal development by transcription regulation of STOMAGEN via the auxin carrier protein-TIR1/AFB receptor-AUXIN/IAA-ARFs signaling pathway. Eventually, stomatal development is initiated by the STOMAGEN-LRR receptor-like protein kinase ERf-MAPK cascade protein kinase-SPCH signaling pathway. EPF1, EPF2 and the LRR receptor-like protein kinase TMM appear not key components in auxin-regulated stomatal development. Light signaling affects this regulatory process by the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 acting upstream of MAPK protein kinases.

Figure 1

Auxin carrier protein PIN3 and the regulation of auxin on stomatal developmentDiagram shows relevant regulatory positions of SPCH, MUTE and FAMA and stomatal development following the content changes of PIN3 and activity changes of auxin."

Figure 2

Signaling pathway of auxin regulated stomatal establishmentThe polar transport of auxin is maintained by auxin influx carrier AUX/LAX and auxin efflux carrier PIN. When auxin concentration is low in mesophyll cells, domain III and IV of AUX/IAA combine with ARF transcription factor, thus promoting STOMAGEN gene expression. Stomagen will move to epidermal cells from mesophyll cell, combine with LRR-like receptor ERf. Then MAPKs signaling cascade will mitigate the repression of SPCH transcription factor which then initiates the stomatal development entry. When auxin level increases in mesophyll cells, TIR1 F-box protein of SCF complex will recognize the domain II of AUX/IAA, leading to the degradation of AUX/IAA. Then ARF will be released to repress the expression of STOMAGEN. EPFs competing with Stomagen will combine LRR-like receptor ERf to phosphorylate kinases of MAPKs signaling cascade. Eventually transcription activity of SPCH and stomatal development are inhibited. Arrows and T represent positive and negative regulations, respectively. The dashed lines represent the inhibited pathway."

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