Chin Bull Bot ›› 2017, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 202-209.doi: 10.11983/CBB16007

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Sex Expression and Reproduction Allocation in Eurya loquaiana

Jin Guo, Xiaoyan Yang, Hongping Deng*, Qin Huang, Yunting Li, Huayu Zhang   

  1. Key Laboratory of Eco-environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2016-01-13 Accepted:2016-09-04 Online:2017-04-05 Published:2017-03-01
  • Contact: Deng Hongping E-mail:denghp@swu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract:

The genus of Eurya Thunb. was described as strictly dioecious, and the gender variation was extremely rare. Until now, bisexual flowers had only been reported in a few species such as E. japonica and E. obtusifolia. We recently found gender variation in E. loquaiana with different types of flowers. Here, we analyzed sex expression characteristics at the flower and plant levels and compared reproduction allocation between different kinds of flowers. E. loquaiana had six types of flowers: pistillate flower, staminate flower, pistillate flower with staminode, staminate flower with pistillode, hermaphrodite flower, and sterile flower. At the flower level, the genders of E. loquaiana were female, male, and bisexual; the gender at the plant level was complicated. E. loquaiana had six gender types: gynoecius and roesious, gynomonoecy, and romonoecy, monoecious and trimonoecious; Stamen biomass allocation was less in male flowers (including the male plant flowers and gender variant plants) than pistil biomass allocation in female flowers (including the female plant and gender variant plants). In bisexual flowers, the stamen biomass allocation was less than the pistil biomass allocation. This is a means to optimize its resource allocation and thus obtain the most fitness benefits.

Table 1

Distribution of sexual variant plants of Eurya loquaiana at Jinyun Mountain"

Site No. Geographic (N) Coordinates (E) Alt. (m)
SM1 29°49′48″ 106°22′44″ 859
SM2 29°50′09″ 106°22′41″ 753
SM3 29°50′05″ 106°22′36″ 753
FX1 29°49′37″ 106°23′31″ 890

Table 2

The flower characteristics in different gender plants of Eurya loquaiana"

Flower type Petal Style Ovary Ovule number Stamens number Anther Filament
The flower of the female plant The brim coils instead outwards 3 gap in general Peak green,
3 loculus
21-45 - - -
The pistillate flower of the gender variant plant The brim coils instead outwards 1-4 gap Pink with chalky white, peak green,1-3 loculus 12-27 - - -
The pistillate flower with staminode The brim coils instead outwards slightly 2-3 gap, 4 gap rarely Pink or peak green,1-3 loculus 1-30 1-8 Similar to anther spots, shrinking, no pollen Filiform, thre- adiness
The hermaphrodite flower The brim coils instead outwards slightly 1-3 gap Pink or peak green, 1-3 loculus 1-29 5-10 Linear-hastate, orange Tenuous
The flower of the male plant No crolling - - - 8-16 Linear-hastate, orange Tenuous
The staminate flower of the gender variant plant No crolling - - - 8-10 Linear-hastate, orange Tenuous
The staminate flower with pistillode The brim coils instead outwards slightly Filiform
or strip
Growing No 6-12 Linear-hastate, orange Tenuous
The sterile flower The brim coils instead outwards slightly Filiform, 1-2 gap No growth No 1-6 Similar to anther spots, shrinking, no pollen Filiform, threadiness

Figure 1

Distribution of sexual plants of Eurya loquaiana at Jinyun Mountain"

Table 3

Pistil and stamen basic characteristics of Eurya loquaiana"

Flower type Pistil length (mm) Ovary size
(length×width)
Stamen length
(mm)
Anther size (length×width)
The flower of the female plant 4.77±0.37 1.32±0.11×1.10±0.07 / /
The flower of the male plant / / 3.48±0.21 1.28±0.18×0.55±0.10
The pistillate flower of the gender variant plant 4.24±0.28* 1.38±0.16×0.92±0.08* / /
The staminate flower of the gender variant plant / / 2.8±0.27* 0.93±0.15×0.45±0.08*
The hermaphrodite flower of the gender variant plant 4.38±0.47 1.51±0.58×0.95±0.41 3.01±0.31 1.14±0.18×0.50±0.12

Table 4

Module biomass of Eurya loquaiana"

Flower type The biomass of pistil
(g·100 flowers-1)
The biomass of
stamen
(g·100 flowers-1)
The biomass of the rest
of flowers
(g·100 flowers-1)
The total biomass
(g·100 flowers-1)
The flower of the female plant 0.0349 / 0.1815 0.2164
The flower of the male plant / 0.0503 0.2948 0.3451
The pistillate flower of the gender variant plant / 0.0226 0.1775 0.2001
The staminate flower of the gender variant plant 0.0182 / 0.1009 0.1191
The hermaphrodite flower of the gender variant plant 0.0171 0.0155 0.1357 0.1683

Table 5

Module biomass allocation of Eurya loquaiana"

Flower type The ratio of pistil (%) The ratio of stamen (%)
The flower of the female plant 16.13 /
The flower of the male plant / 14.58
The pistillate flower of the gender variant plant / 11.29
The staminate flower of the gender variant plant 15.28 /
The hermaphrodite flower of the gender variant plant 10.16 9.21
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