植物学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (4): 487-495.doi: 10.11983/CBB16080

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

荒漠孑遗植物裸果木的开花物候特征

唐欣, 李新蓉*()   

  1. 新疆农业大学草业与环境科学学院, 新疆草地资源与生态重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-15 接受日期:2016-11-11 出版日期:2017-07-01 发布日期:2017-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 李新蓉 E-mail:xinrong16@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(No.31360100)

Flowering Phenology Characteristics of the Desert Relict Plant Gymnocarpos przewalskii

Xin Tang, Xinrong Li*   

  1. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China
  • Received:2016-04-15 Accepted:2016-11-11 Online:2017-07-01 Published:2017-05-05
  • Contact: Li Xinrong E-mail:xinrong16@163.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

2014年和2015年连续2年对哈密和乌恰裸果木(Gymnocarpos przewalskii)自然种群的开花物候特征进行野外定点观测, 并运用相对开花振幅、开花强度和开花同步性等参数对其开花物候特征进行分析。结果表明, 2个种群每年均开1次花, 4月下旬到5月上旬进入始花期, 开花进程基本相似, 均呈单峰曲线, 具有较高的开花同步性, 呈现“集中大量”开花模式; 在个体水平上, 始花期、终花期在种群和年份间略有差异; 单花持续时间在年际间是稳定的, 但在种群间有所不同, 即乌恰种群的单花持续时间略长于哈密种群; 不同裸果木种群的开花数与结籽数间均呈极显著正相关, 开花同步性指数与相对开花强度间呈显著负相关; 乌恰种群的始花期与开花数间呈负相关。裸果木个体开花振幅、开花同步指数及开花模式在种群和年份间的相似性很大程度上是由其在长期的地理变迁中形成的遗传特性决定的, 而始花期和开花持续时间等开花物候特征的差异主要是由环境和气象因子(海拔、气温、降水及光照)差异造成。研究结果对于探讨该属植物的繁殖生物学特性及其保护具有重要意义。

Abstract:

From 2014 to 2015, we investigated and compared the Hami and Wuqia populations of Gymnocarpos przewalskii in the wild, and used indices such as flowering amplitude, relative flowering intensity, synchrony index. The two populations flowered once in a year, late April to early May into flowering onset; the flowering phenology of the two populations was similar, and the plant has the characteristics of high flowering synchrony and a typical “mass flowering” pattern. At the individual level, there were significant differences both in the first flowering date and the end flowering date by population and year; the single flower longevity and mean longevities of individual flowers were similar at different years. Different populations differed: the flowering duration of a single flower of Wuqia was slightly longer than for the Hami population. We found a significant positive correlation between flower number and seed number, whereas the synchrony indices were negatively correlated with relative flowering intensity in different populations. The similarity in flowering amplitude and flowering synchrony in the two species and years of G. przewalskii may be explained by their phylogenetic relationships, whereas the differences may result from their evolutionary history in heterogeneous habitats (altitude, temperature, precipitation and light). These results can provide useful information for research on reproductive biology and conservation for the species.

表2

2014和2015年不同种群裸果木在种群及个体水平的开花物候"

Observation item Population of Hami Population of Wuqia
2014 2015 2014 2015
Population level
Onset April 29 May 6 May 3 May 9
Date of peak flowering May 9 May 17 May 23 May 30
End date May 29 June 11 June 13 June 24
Duration (d) 30 36 41 46
Individual level
Number of flowers 303.4±63.7 317.65±55.36 232.3±33.10 234±20.66
Onset 4.55±1.82 (May 3) 12.00±0.86 (May 11) 6.95±0.19 (May 6) 13.50±1.47 (May 13)
Date of peak flowering 10.90±1.07 21.45±0.76 17.00±1.17 23.25±1.92
End date 16.70±1.13 28.10±1.17 24.95±1.76 33.60±2.04
Duration (d) 12.15±2.37 16.10±1.41 18.10±2.17 20.10±2.63
Range 3-19 11-30 6-30 19-39
RFI (%) 9.57±7.79 10.13±8.30 11.46±7.06 12.16±7.53
FSI 0.833±0.011 0.831±0.004 0.819±0.027 0.813±0.026

图1

不同裸果木种群在不同年份间个体的开花振幅曲线 (A) 哈密种群; (B) 乌恰种群"

图2

不同裸果木种群在不同年份间个体的相对开花强度频率分布 (A) 哈密种群; (B) 乌恰种群"

表3

裸果木单花开花动态"

Stages Calyx opening situation Anthers changes in color Relative position of stigma and anthers
Pre-dehiscence Unopened Yellow Stamens lower than the pistil
Initial dehiscence Calyx open Yellow Stamens lower than the pistil or flush
Full dehiscence Calyx fully open and the maximum
diameter
Yellow or orange Stamens higher than the pistil or flush
Final dehiscence After reaching the maximum diameter, the flower diameter began to decrease Orange or fall off Stamens higher than the pistil or flush
Withering Flower diameter decreased and gradua-
lly closed
Fall off Stamens lower than the pistil or flush

表4

2015年不同种群裸果木开花物候参数及结籽数的相关性分析"

Population Statistical items Onset Duration FSI RFI Number of flowers
Population of Hami Onset - - - - -
Duration 0.135 - - - -
FSI -0.994 -0.992* - - -
RFI 0.540 0.480* -0.678* - -
Number of flowers 0.293 0.551 0.990** 0.988 -
Number of seeds 0.421 0.436 0.865** 0.721 0.930**
Population of Wuqia Onset - - - - -
Duration 0.719* - - - -
FSI -0.987 -0.983* - - -
RFI -0.665 0.575* -0.780* - -
Number of flowers -0.147 0.264 1.000** 0.999 -
Number of seeds 0.229 -0.235 0.963** 0.230 0.949**

表1

哈密和乌恰2014和2015年1-7月主要气象因子"

Research area Main meteorological factors Year Month
January February March April May June July
Hami Mean temperature (°C) 2014 -12.5 -4.3 9.2 15.9 21 24.7 26.9
2015 -9.3 -4.5 5.8 14.4 19.9 24.3 27.6
Precipitation (mm) 2014 0 4.1 0 0 1.5 3.4 4.4
2015 0 0 0 0.6 3.5 26.6 4.9
Sunshine duration (h) 2014 226.1 237.6 311.3 329 366.9 329.1 378.2
2015 230.4 237.2 309.5 303.1 367.8 331.1 383.1
Wuqia Mean temperature (°C) 2014 -5.2 -5.1 3.5 9.8 14.7 17.2 20.2
2015 -5.1 -2.2 4.9 10.5 15.3 17.5 22.8
Precipitation (mm) 2014 0.3 4 0 1.9 18.1 11.8 9.2
2015 1.4 9.5 0.5 0 2.7 13.7 1.3
Sunshine duration (h) 2014 169.6 180.8 244.2 248.7 282.3 348.7 364.9
2015 189.4 168.7 225.1 240 252.1 325.9 360.8
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