Chin Bull Bot ›› 2015, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (1): 90-99.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1259.2015.00090

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SEM Observations and Measurements of Vestured Pits of the Secondary Xylem in the Tribe Rhizophoreae

Chuanyuan Deng1, *, Guiliang Xin1, Wanchao Zhang1, Suzhi Guo2, Qiuhua Xue1, Zhongxiong Lai3, Luying Ye1   

  1. 1College of Landscape Architecture
    2College of Life Sciences
    3College of Horticulture Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
  • Received:2013-12-16 Accepted:2014-11-13 Online:2015-04-09 Published:2015-01-01
  • Contact: Deng Chuanyuan E-mail:dengchuanyuan@163.com
  • About author:

    ? These authors contributed equally to this paper

Abstract:

We used SEM to investigate the distribution and micromorphology of vestured pits in the secondary xylem of 10 species and one variety representing all 4 genera within the tribe Rhizophoreae. Richness indexes of intervascular vestured pits and quantitative features of scalariform intervascular bordered pits were measured on SEM images by use of Carnoy 2.0. Vestured pits were present in vessel elements and tracheary elements of secondary xylem of the specimens and varied considerably in distribution and micromorphology. Stepwise regression analysis of richness indexes and quantitative features of scalariform intervascular bordered pits indicated increased richness indexes, including frequency of vestured vessel inner aperture, outer aperture and pit chamber with increasing aperture fraction, which suggests that richness of intervascular vestured pits was associated with the geometric structure of scalariform intervascular bordered pits. We demonstrate consistent occurrence of intervascular vestured pits in the tribe Rhizophoreae from the common presence of intervascular vestured pits in our specimens. In terms of ecophylogeny, vestured pits occurring in the vessel elements and tracheary elements of the secondary xylem of the tribe Rhizophoreae might be an ecologically adaptive character controlled by phylogeny.

Figure 1

Distribution and micromorphology of vestured pits in the study species of tribe Rhizophoreae (A) Ceriops tagal, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, the inner pit apertures are vestured (a), or non-vestured (b); (B) Kandelia candel, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows the outer pit apertures are vestured; (C) Rhizophora stylosa, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows the pit chambers are vestured; (D) Rhizophora mucronata, non-vestured outer pit apertures and non-vestured pit chambers in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface (Dh: Horizontal pit membrane diameter; Dv: Vertical pit membrane diameter; LAOA: The longest axis of the outer aperture; SAOA: The shortest axis of the outer aperture); (E) Ceriops australis, non-vestured inner pit apertures in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side (LAIA: The longest axis of the inner aperture; SAIA: The shortest axis of the inner aperture); (F) Rhizophora stylosa, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from lumen side, arrow shows scattered dot-shaped vestures occur in the inner pit apertures; (G) Rhizophora stylosa, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, arrow shows scattered dot-shaped vestures occur in the inner pit apertures; (H) Rhizophora mangle, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows scattered rod-shaped vestures occur in the pit chambers; (I) Bruguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows scattered silk-like vestures occur in the outer pit apertures; (J) Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows forked vestures occur in the outer pit apertures; (K) Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, arrow shows forked vestures occur in the inner pit apertures; (L) Rhizophora apiculata, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, arrow shows forked vestures together with dot-like vestures arise from the margin of the inner pit aperture, therefore, the irregular shape of inner pit aperture develop; (M) Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, arrow shows dot-like and rod-like vestures aggregate into a agglomerate and occlude the inner pit aperture; (N) Kandelia candel, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows aggregate dot-shaped or rod-shaped vestures occur in the outer pit apertures and pit chambers; (O) Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows aggregate dot-shaped or rod-shaped vestures occur in the outer pit apertures and pit chambers; (P) Bruguiera sexangula, vessel-ray parenchyma pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the outer surface, arrow shows filament-like vestures in the outer pit apertures or pit chambers interweave to form into a rather compact network and extend to the outside of pits; (Q) Ceriops tagal, intervascular pits in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side, arrow shows filament-like vestures in the inner pit apertures interweave to form into a network and extend to the inner vessel wall; (R) Ceriops australis, arrow shows sheeted vestures occurred in the wall of a vessel element viewed from the lumen side and obscure the inner pit apertures"

Table 1

Distribution and micromorphological variations of vestures in pits of Rhizophoreae species studied"

Scientific name Inner pit aperture Outer pit aperture Pit chamber
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
Bruguiera gyrmnorrhiza + + + ++ ++ ++ + + + ++ ++ + ++ + + - - ++ + +
B. parviflora + + - + - - + + + - + - - + + - - - - +
B. sexangula + + + ++ ++ + + + + - + - + ++ + + - - - + +
var.
rhynchuopetala
++ + - + + - - + ++ + + - - - + + - - - - -
Ceriops australis + + + ++ ++ + ++ + + + + - - - ++ + - - - - -
C. tagal ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + ++ + - ++ - + + + ++ - + - - +
Kandelia candel ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + + + ++ + - ++ + + - - + + +
Rhizophora apiculata + + + ++ ++ + ++ + + - + - - + + - - - + - -
R. mangle + + + ++ ++ + ++ + + + + - - ++ + + + - - - +
R. mucronata + + + + ++ + + + + - + + - + + ++ + - + - -
R. stylosa ++ + + + ++ ++ + + + + + + - + + + - + + + +

Table 2

Richness indexes of intervascular vestured pits and quantitative features of scalariform intervascular bordered pits in 10 species and 1 variety of tribe Rhizophoreae (means±SD)"

Species FVIA (%) FVOA (%) FVPC (%) Dh
(μm)
Dv
(μm)
LAOA (μm) SAOA (μm) LAIA (μm) SAIA (μm) APf Fap
(%)
PA (μm2) OPA (μm2) IPA (μm2)
Bruguiera
gymnorrhiza
27.77±
44.57
16.40±
36.07
14.53±
34.25
23.47±
7.26
4.72±
1.90
12.56±
7.27
1.98±
1.05
18.62±
7.20
1.43±
0.62
7.56±
6.05
21.10±
9.16
95.68±
67.45
21.31±
19.68
20.94±
12.36
B. parviflora 19.09±
34.63
7.78±
23.00
5.75±
21.40
23.02±
7.50
4.57±
1.03
14.65±
5.97
1.02±
0.78
14.45±
5.62
1.02±
0.58
18.83±
11.66
14.74±
11.90
87.60±
44.24
13.02±
13.73
11.58±
10.60
B. sexangula 26.25±
39.06
15.06±
37.89
6.76±
19.60
27.47±
10.40
3.72±
1.21
21.72±
8.78
1.13±
0.90
17.94±
5.02
1.44±
0.95
24.91±
12.76
23.12±
12.37
83.49±
48.62
20.83±
18.34
20.99±
18.61
B. sexangula var.
rhynchuopetala
20.54±
40.21
11.21±
39.39
4.21±
14.24
23.51±
9.00
3.70±
1.12
17.96±
7.53
0.78±
0.30
12.93±
4.34
1.28±
0.63
25.55±
12.11
16.06±
5.71
74.13±
52.31
12.11±
9.44
13.21±
8.34
Ceriops australis 21.82±
35.69
7.04±
21.32
8.83±
24.26
25.00±
9.14
3.46±
1.05
20.25±
8.07
0.79±
0.48
15.14±
5.58
0.71±
0.44
32.74±
17.60
18.23±
11.00
71.26±
40.25
12.82±
9.06
8.94±
7.87
C. tagal 25.01±
40.81
1.53±
7.97
0.48±
3.09
15.00±
3.78
2.68±
0.99
12.29±
3.63
0.59±
0.21
18.44±
7.58
1.31±
1.10
24.16±
13.64
21.84±
15.01
19.89±
20.22
18.10±
14.75
21.75±
25.90
Kandelia candel 31.56±
39.40
5.82±
18.16
1.04±
8.14
24.76±
7.75
4.98±
1.64
18.90±
5.72
1.42±
0.59
20.91±
7.75
1.33±
0.56
15.28±
6.53
22.13±
7.52
105.31±
71.20
22.89±
15.84
24.10±
18.28
Rhizophora
apiculata
25.94±
35.87
8.83±
22.65
1.71±
7.14
29.84±
10.74
4.80±
1.49
21.30±
9.92
1.28±
1.05
27.98±
11.78
1.67±
0.71
21.62±
14.31
17.86±
9.33
117.43±
68.31
24.25±
34.96
35.69±
20.76
R. mangle 25.97±
37.30
5.82±
19.78
2.17±
13.38
18.03±
5.08
3.33±
0.61
13.82±
4.23
1.03±
0.46
13.32±
4.04
1.23±
1.19
16.04±
7.71
13.57±
9.76
189.41±
63.61
41.48±
13.45
13.14±
15.49
R. mucronata 26.93±
42.66
9.40±
25.61
6.22±
20.95
26.47±
5.77
4.11±
1.17
19.52±
4.08
1.03±
0.44
19.34±
4.77
1.42±
0.50
22.80±
12.01
19.24±
10.79
88.04±
42.51
16.09±
9.57
21.92±
9.58
R. stylosa 34.43±
45.00
26.97±
42.95
15.79±
37.46
18.89±
6.36
2.18±
1.32
11.99±
5.77
1.17±
0.59
18.70±
2.34
1.78±
0.32
14.47±
12.97
41.60±
19.29
33.10±
31.83
9.50±
3.39
26.34±
5.91
PI 0.45 0.94 0.97 0.50 0.56 0.45 0.70 0.54 0.60 0.77 0.67 0.89 0.77 0.75
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