Chin Bull Bot ›› 2015, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (4): 473-481.doi: 10.11983/CBB14152

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Phylogeny of Stixeae and Borthwickiaceae Based on Morphological and Molecular Data

Huiling Zhao1,2, Limin Lu2, Junxia Su1*, Zhiduan Chen2   

  1. 1School of Life Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China
    2State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
  • Received:2014-08-21 Accepted:2015-01-27 Online:2015-05-07 Published:2015-07-01
  • Contact: Su Junxia E-mail:sjx_xia@163.com
  • About author:

    ? These authors contributed equally to this paper

Abstract:

Stixeae (including Stixis, Tirania, Neothorelia and Forchhammeria) and Borthwickia have traditionally been placed in Capparaceae. Recent molecular and morphological studies suggest Borthwickia as a new monotypic family. However, the positions and taxonomic ranks of Stixeae remain unresolved. To estimate the relationships of Stixeae, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Gyrostemonaceae-Resedaceae-Forchhammeria-Tirania (GRFT) clade of the core Brassicales using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis with 20 morphological characters and five DNA regions (matK, rbcL, ndhF, trnL-F, and ITS). Our results strongly support Neothorelia as a new member of the GRFT clade; Neothorelia, Tirania and Stixis form a clade with strong support. The systematic position of Forchhammeria is still uncertain; molecular and morphological evidence support Borthwickiaceae as a new monotypic family.

Table 1

Origin of materials"

Taxon Locality Voucher
Borthwickia trifoliata W.W. Smith Mengla, Yunnan RS002
Stixis suaveolens (Roxb.) Pierre Mengla, Yunnan RS012
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata (King) Jacobs Hekou, Yunnan RS019
Stixis scandens Lour. Mengla, Yunnan RS013

Figure 1

Characters of the leaf epidermis under LM and SEM in Borthwickia and Stixis (A)-(D) Adaxial epidermis and anticlinal wall; (E)-(H) Characters of the stomata; (I), (J) Cuticular membrane; (K), (L) Trichome. (A), (E), (I), (L) Borthwickia trifoliata; (B), (F) Stixis suaveolens; (D), (H) Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata; (C), (G), (J), (K) Stixis scandens. Bar=100 µm"

Table 2

Statistics from phylogenetic analyses of the various datasets"

matK ndhF rbcL trnL-F ITS Five loci
data
Morphological
data
Total
evidence
Total length 1 320 923 1 270 1 122 689 5 012 20 5 032
Variable characters 306 180 126 159 381 1 032 20 1 266
Informative characters 212 145 90 89 326 760 20 780
Number of trees 11 415 12 780 10 12 045 288 32 210 20
Length of trees 398 235 163 192 949 1 410 56 1 756
Consistency index 0.884 0.872 0.853 0.911 0.624 0.859 0.875 0.876
Retention index 0.946 0.942 0.938 0.953 0.887 0.938 0.963 0.936
Rescaled consistency index 0.837 0.822 0.799 0.869 0.553 0.806 0.842 0.820

Figure 2

Phylogram of Bayesian inference (BI) tree based on analysis of 32-taxon, 5-locus data and morphological data set Numbers on branches indicate the BI pp and MP BS; dash indicates different topological structure on the node."

Appendix 1

Taxa, voucher information and GenBank accession numbers for all samples included in this study"

Taxon Voucher ITS matK ndhF rbcL trnL-F
Borthwickia trifoliata 1 W.W. Smith SJX036 KR936124* JQ733089 JQ733101 JQ733114 JQ733127
Borthwickia trifoliata 2 W.W. Smith Jin & al. YNET 381 KR936122* JQ733091 JQ733103 JQ733116 JQ733129
Borthwickia trifoliata 3 W.W. Smith RS002 KR936123* JQ733090 JQ733102 JQ733115 JQ733128
Caylusea hexagyna (Forssk.) M.L. Green DQ987228 FJ212207 - FJ212220 DQ987069
Forchhammeria trifoliata Radlk. - AY483245 AY483259 AY483277 -
Forchhammeria sessilifolia Standl. - AY483243, AY483257 AY483275 -
Forchhammeria sp. - AY483244 AY483258 AY483276 -
Forchhammeria watsonii Rose - AY483246 AY483260 AY483278 -
Forchhammeria pallida Liebm. - - AY122381 AY483274 AY122437
Gyrostemon sp. - AY483236 AY483252 L22439 -
Gyrostemon tepperi (F. Muell. ex H. Walter) A.S. George - AY483237 AY483253 L22440 -
Gyrostemon thesioides (Hook. f.) A.S. George DQ987075 FJ212199 - FJ212210 DQ986975
Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl) J.F. Macbr. DQ987162 AY483240 AY483255 AY483272 FJ212256
Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill. - AY483239 AY483254 U38533 AY122463
Reseda complicata Bory DQ987171 FJ212205 - FJ212218 DQ987046
Reseda crystallina Webb & Berthel DQ987089 FJ212200 - FJ212212 FJ212283
Reseda lutea L. M. Merello, J. Stone, M. Eristavi & M. Khutsishvili 2211 KR936125* AY483241 AY122406 AY483273 AY122464
Reseda luteola L. DQ987171 FJ212206 - FJ212219 DQ987050
Sesamoides purpurascens (L.) G. López. DQ987216 FJ212208 - FJ212221 DQ987064
Stixis sauveolens 1 (Roxb.) Pierre BW04 KR936112* JQ733092 JQ733104 JQ733117 JQ733130
Stixis sauveolens 2 (Roxb.) Pierre RS012 KR936113* JQ733094 JQ733106 JQ733119 JQ733131
Stixis sauveolens 3 (Roxb.) Pierre RS015 KR936114* JQ733096 JQ733108 JQ733121 JQ733132
Stixis sauveolens 4 (Roxb.) Pierre Chen Z.D. HN171 KR936115* JQ733100 JQ733113 JQ733126 JQ733133
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 1 (King) Jacobs RS001 KR936117* JQ733093 JQ733105 JQ733118 JQ733134
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 2 (King) Jacobs RS013 KR936116* JQ733095 JQ733107 JQ733120 JQ733135
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 3 (King) Jacobs RS017 KR936120* JQ733097 JQ733109 JQ733122 JQ733136
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 4 (King) Jacobs RS019 KR936121* JQ733098 JQ733110 JQ733123 JQ733137
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 5 (King) Jacobs Yang Z.G. 008 KR936119* - JQ733112 JQ733125 JQ733139
Stixis scandens Lour. Shui et al.12443 KR936118* JQ733099 JQ733111 JQ733124 JQ733138
Tersonia cyathiflora (Fenzl) A.S. George ex J.W. - AY483238 AY122404 L22441 AY122462
Tirania purpurea Pierre - - AY483261 AY483279 -

Appendix 2

Morphological characters scored for phylogenetic analysis"

No. Morphological characters
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Phyllotaxy: Alternate (0); Opposite (1)
Habit: Shrub (0); Tree (1); Woody vine (2); Annual herb (3); Perennial herb (4)
Division of leaves: Unifoliate (0); Palmate (1); 3 leaflets (2)
Stipule: Absent (0); Present (1)
Leaf epidermal cells: Polygonal (0); Irregular (1)
Axillary inflorescence: Present (0); Absent (1)
Breeding system: Monoecious (0); Dioecious (1)
Inflorescence: Raceme (0); Panicle (1)
Calyx: Persistent (0); Caducous (1)
Style: Persistent (0); Caducous (1)
Petal: 6 (0); 0 (1); 5–8 (2); 4–9 (3); 6–8 (4)
Sepal: 6 (0); 4–9 (1); 5–8 (2); 2–5 (3); 6–8 (4)
Stigma: 3 (0); ≥2 (1); 1 (2)
Carpel: 3 (0); 2 (1); 4–6 (2); 0 (3)
Locule: 3 (0); 2 (1); 4–8 (3); 1 (4)
Ovary: Spherical (0); Pyriform (1); Linear (2); Quadrilateral (3); Turbinate (4)
Placentation: Axile (0); Parietal (1)
Pollen exine ornamentation: Reticulate (0); Cave-shaped (1); Rugulate (2); Spinulate (3)
Pollen grain shape: Spherical (0); Subprolate (1); Prolate (2)
Fruit shape: Subsphaeroidal (0); Spherical (1); Elliptoid (2); Linear (3); Capsule (4); Turbinate (5)

Appendix 2

Morphological data matrix"

Taxon The number of morphological characters
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Neothorelia laotica Gagnep. 0 0 2 0 ? ? ? 1 ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0 ?
Tirania purpurea Pierre 0 0 0 1 ? 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 ? 0 1
Stixis sauveolens 1 (Roxb.) Pierre 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis sauveolens 2 (Roxb.) Pierre 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis sauveolens 3 (Roxb.) Pierre 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis sauveolens 4 (Roxb.) Pierre 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 1 (King) Jacobs 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 2 (King) Jacobs 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 3 (King) Jacobs 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 4 (King) Jacobs 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis ovata subsp. fasciculata 5 (King) Jacobs 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Stixis scandens Lour 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Borthwickia trifoliata 1 W.W. Smith 1 0/1 1 0 1 1 0 ? 1 ? 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 1 1 3
Borthwickia trifoliata 2 W.W. Smith 1 0/1 1 0 1 1 0 ? 1 ? 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 1 1 3
Borthwickia trifoliata 3 W.W. Smith 1 0/1 1 0 1 1 0 ? 1 ? 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 1 1 3
Reseda complicata Bory 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 4 3 1 2 2 4
Reseda luteola L. 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 4 3 1 2 2 4
Reseda crystallina Webb & Berthel. 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 4 3 1 2 2 4
Caylusea hexagyna (Forssk.) M.L. Green 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 2 4
Sesamoides purpurascens (L.) G. López. 1 4 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 ? 4 3 1 ? 2 4
Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl) J.F. Macbr. 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 1 0 2 4
Reseda lutea L. 1 3 0 1 ? 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 4 3 1 2 2 4
Gyrostemon sp. 0 0 0 1 ? 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 0 3 2 6
Gyrostemon tepperi (F. Muell. ex H. Walter) A.S. George 0 0 0 1 ? 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 0 3 2 6
Gyrostemon thesioides (Hook. f.) A.S. George 0 0 0 1 ? 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 0 3 2 6
Forchhammeria trifoliata Radlk. 0 1 0 0 ? ? 1 0 0 ? 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Forchhammeria sessilifolia Standl. 0 1 0 0 ? ? 1 0 0 ? 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Forchhammeria sp. 0 1 0 0 ? ? 1 0 0 ? 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Forchhammeria watsonii Rose 0 1 0 0 ? ? 1 0 0 ? 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Forchhammeria pallida Liebm. 0 1 0 0 ? ? 1 0 0 ? 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill. 0 0 0 1 ? 0 1 0 ? 0 4 5 1 ? ? ? ? 0 2 1
Tersonia cyathiflora (Fenzl) A.S. George ex J.W. 0 0 0 1 ? 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 0 3 2 6
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