Chin Bull Bot ›› 2019, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (4): 474-485.doi: 10.11983/CBB18200

• EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evolution and Expression of NCED Family Genes in Vitis vinifera

Wang Xiaolong,Liu Fengzhi,Shi Xiangbin,Wang Xiaodi,Ji Xiaohao,Wang Zhiqiang,Wang Baoliang,Zheng Xiaocui,Wang Haibo()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Mineral Nutrition and Fertilizers Efficient Utilization of Deciduous Fruit Tree, Liaoning Province, Key Laboratory of Germplasm Resources Utilization of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xingcheng 125100, China
  • Received:2018-09-19 Accepted:2019-01-15 Online:2020-01-08 Published:2019-07-01
  • Contact: Wang Haibo E-mail:haibo8316@163.com

Abstract:

9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key rate-limiting enzyme in ABA biosynthesis in plants, is involved in plant drought, exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and high salt response, and can reduce the damage of environmental stress on plants. With genome-wide identification and analysis of the grape NCED gene family, we aimed to understand the species evolution relationship and study the expression patterns of various genes in different tissues and under drought, ABA and high salt (NaCl) stress treatment, to lay the foundation for further study of the biological functions of NCED genes. A total of 12 NCED genes were found in the grape genome. The amino acid residues encoded by the genes are distributed between 510 aa (VvNCED2) and 625 aa (VvNCED10). The maximum molecular weight of the VvNCED protein was 70.53 kDa (VvNCED10) and the minimum was 57.85 kDa (VvNCED2). After differentiation from the ancestral gene, the grape NCED genes had five replication events with two loss events. The NCED1/2, NCED3/4, NCED6/7 and NCED9/10 gene pairs are thought to be produced by segmental duplication. The replication time of segmental duplication ranged from 3.08 to 120.0 million years ago, which is later than the differentiation of monocotyledons. As compared with the control, VvNCED1 was significantly upregulated by 72.1% after 48 h of ABA treatment, whereas VvNCED2 was significantly downregulated by 84.0%. The expression of VvNCED6 was higher in only roots under drought treatment for 14, 21 and 28 days than in the control: 2.49, 1.05 and 1.09 times of control values, respectively. The expression of VvNCED7 was only 1.07 times higher than the control value in roots under drought treatment for 14 days. After 72 h of ABA treatment, the expression of VvNCED3 was significantly downregulated by 59.5% as compared with the control, whereas VvNCED4 was significantly upregulated by 169.9% as compared with the control. The significant peaks in expression of VvNCED3/VvNCED4 after NaCl treatment were 24 and 48 h, respectively, up by 219.2% and 114.4%. The differential conserved-domain expression patterns with different stress treatments are the basis for the functional differentiation of NCED proteins. The functional differentiation of NCED during evolution may be conducive to the occurrence of replication events.

Key words: NCED gene family, grapevine, abiotic stress, gene expression

Table 1

The primer sequences used for quantitative RT-PCR"

Gene name Forward primer (5'-3') Reverse primer (5'-3')
VvNCED1 GCTGGAGAAGCTGATAGTGAAG GAAGATACCCAATGACCGGAAG
VvNCED2 GGCACTTTCGGAGGTTGATAA TGGATGAGCAGTGAAGGAATG
VvNCED3 CGGTGGAGATGGTGAGAATAGA CACTGCTGCGTACACGTATTT
VvNCED4 CTCAGCAGTAGGTGATCCTTTG CAGGCTCGTACATTCTCTTAGC
VvNCED6 CTCGTGATTTGGGCTCTTTCT GCTTGATGATGTGTGCTTTGG
VvNCED7 CGCTCTTCTTCTTCCTCACTAC GGCGTTCCCTCTTCTACTATTG
VvNCED9 CCATGGACTTCCCGATGATAAA ATCCCACAACTAGAGCTTGC
VvNCED10 CAGGGAGGTGTTGAAGAAGATG CCCTTTGAGGCAGTGTGATT
VvActin TACAATTCCATCATGAAGTGTGATG TTAGAAGCACTTCCTGTGAACAATG

Table 2

NCED genes identified in grapevine and their detailed information"

Gene name Accession No. Chromosome location
(start, end)
Length of amino acids (aa) Molecular
weight (kDa)
Theoretical pI GRAVY
VvNCED1 VIT_213s0064g00840.1 Chr.13 (22672994, 22681910) 546 61.63 6.13 -0.271
VvNCED2 VIT_213s0064g00810.1 Chr.13 (22587965, 22596719) 510 57.85 6.23 -0.250
VvNCED3 VIT_202s0087g00910.1 Chr.2 (18560696, 18562591) 599 65.90 6.88 -0.236
VvNCED4 VIT_202s0087g00930.1 Chr.2 (18588853, 18590786) 589 65.61 6.63 -0.187
VvNCED5 VIT_216s0039g01370.1 Chr.16 (789473, 791221) 558 62.09 5.57 -0.197
VvNCED6 VIT_219s0093g00550.1 Chr.19 (17645348, 17647649) 609 67.13 6.38 -0.317
VvNCED7 VIT_210s0003g03750.1 Chr.10 (6374432, 6376728) 605 67.34 6.36 -0.365
VvNCED8 VIT_205s0051g00670.1 Chr.5 (11589343, 11591102) 575 63.14 8.24 -0.202
VvNCED9 VIT_204s0008g03510.1 Chr.4 (2883265, 2886523) 567 63.72 5.73 -0.335
VvNCED10 VIT_204s0008g03480.1 Chr.4 (2873553, 2878309) 625 70.53 6.43 -0.305
VvNCED11 VIT_204s0008g03380.1 Chr.4 (2784465, 2788790) 563 62.34 7.27 -0.339
VvNCED12 VIT_215s0021g02190.1 Chr.15 (13131078, 13135539) 610 68.46 7.31 -0.313

Figure 1

Joint phylogenetic tree (A) and amplification model (B) of NCED gene from grape, Arabidopsis and rice The red five-pointed stars in the figure represent the most recent common ancestral differentiation node before species differentiation. The numbers in the red and blue circles represent the number of duplication and loss events that occur after the species differentiated nodes, respectively. The numbers in the green solid box represent the number of NCED genes."

Figure 2

Phylogenetic relationship (A) and gene structure (B) of grape NCED genes"

Figure 3

Schematic structure of conserved motifs identified in grapevine NCED proteins The grey bars represent the full length of NCED proteins, and the numbers in the other colored boxes are random numbers for the conserved domains located at NCED protein. The same number represents the same conserved domain."

Figure 4

Expression pattern of NCED genes at different developmental stages and in some specialized tissues of grapevine The 54 tissue names and gene names are located above and to the right of the heat map, respectively. The scale bar above the heat map indicates the geng expression level from 0.0 to 3.49."

Figure 5

Expression pattern of grapevine NCED genes under drought treatments The drought treatments (DL1-DL5 indicate drought treatment for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of leaf tissue, respectively; DR1-DR5 indicate drought treatment for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of root tissue, respectively) and gene names are located above and to the right of the heat map, respectively. The scale bar above the heat map indicates the gene expression level from 0.0 to 77.06. Solid dots of the same color represent duplicated gene pairs."

Figure 6

Expression pattern of grapevine NCED genes under ABA treatments Different lowercase letters above the histogram indicate significant differences among the different time points of the treatment (P<0.05)."

Figure 7

Expression pattern of grapevine NCED genes under NaCl treatments Different lowercase letters above the histogram indicate significant differences among the different time points of the treatment (P<0.05)."

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